Biology Final.txt

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Biology Final.txt
2012-01-23 10:57:39
Biology 20

A compilation of study cards for Bio 20
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  1. True or False: Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Protista, and Kingdom Animaliea are all autotrophic.
  2. True or False: Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia contain multicellular organisms
  3. True or False: Members of Kingdom Fungi have prokaryotic cells
  4. True or False: Kingdom Monera is unicellular
  5. True or False: Fungi are heterotrophic
  6. True or False: Flagellates move by rythmic movement of their cilia
  7. True or False: Members of Kingdom Fungi are classified by their sexual reproductive structures
  8. T or F: Organisms in Kingdom Protista can be heterotrophic and or autotrophic
  9. T or F: Organisms of Kingdom Plantae can reproduce without seeds
  10. T or F: Only Kingdom Plantae has organisms with cell walls
  11. T or F: Kingdom Animalia has motile organisms
  12. T or F: The phylum Mollusca is classified under Kingdom Animalia
  13. T or F: All members of Kingdom Animalia are land-dwelling
  14. Number Ordering: Levels of Classification
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  15. What are the 3 types of movement used by organisms in Kingdom Protista? Describe
    • Flagella- Use a tail to propel them forward
    • Pseudopods- Move inards where they want to move. Looks like movement but is really just redistribution
    • Cilia- Rythmic movement of little extremities along its body
  16. What are the names and shapes of Bacteria?
    • Spirochete- Spiral
    • Coccus- Spherical or oval shaped
    • Bacillus- Rod shaped
    • Vibrio Spiro- Comma shape
    • Spirilam Spiro- Spirals
    • Spirochete Spiral- Thin and flexible spirals
  17. What is the difference between vascular and non-vascular plants?
    Vascular have tubes and seeds and take in CO2. Non-vascular plants do not. They are aquatic plants so they don't breath air and release eggs into water for reproduction.
  18. How are vascular plants suited for their environment?
    • Produce seeds that become fertilized by pollination
    • Take CO2 out of the air
  19. How are non-vascular plants suited for their environment?
    • Excrete eggs into water for reproduction
    • Need to be in water
    • Need to stay moist
  20. Are mollusks Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic? Autotrophic or Heterotrophic? Defining characteristics? Example?
    • Eukaryotic
    • Heterotrophic
    • Muscular Foot
    • Oyster
  21. Are Annelids Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic? Autotrophic or Heterotrophic? Defining characteristics? Example?
    • Eukaryotic
    • Heterotrophic
    • Segmented body
    • Earthworm
  22. Are Arthropods Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic? Autotrophic or Heterotrophic? Defining characteristics? Example?
    • Eukaryotic
    • Heterotrophic
    • Jointed appendages/ exoskeleton
    • cenipedes
  23. Are Chordates Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic? Autotrophic or Heterotrophic? Defining characteristics? Example?
    • Eukaryotic
    • Heterotrophic
    • Nerve Chord
    • You
  24. Paramecium belong to which Kingdom?
  25. Diatoms belong to which Kingdom?
  26. Sea Urchins belong to which Kingdom?
  27. Mushrooms belong to which Kingdom?
  28. Moss belongs to which Kingdom?
  29. Earthworms belong to which Kingdom?
  30. Red Algae belong to which Kingdom?
  31. Roses belong to which Kingdom?
  32. Are viruses considered to be non-living?
  33. T or F: Archaebacteria consist of thermoacidophiles, halophiles, and methanogens?
  34. What moves by pseudopods? (fake feet)
  35. T or F: Bacidiomycota is where the mushroom is the sexual reproductive structure.
  36. T or F:Gram positive bacteria does not hold a stain
  37. Bryophyta are what?
    Non-vascular plants
  38. Flowering plants are called what?
  39. Which phylums organisms have soft bodies and a muscular foot?
  40. Mammals are considered to be part of which phylum
  41. Which phylum contains animals that are radially symmetrical?
  42. How do you make a cheek cell wet mount slide?
    • Gently wipe the tooth pick around inside of cheek
    • Drop iodine on cell
    • Rub toothpick in it
    • Place cover slip on top
    • Remove excess liquid
  43. Calculate magnification
    Av. real size= Size of field of view/# of cells that fit across
    Mag= size of drawing/ Av. Real size of object

    Size of field of view=400um
    10 cells across
    size of drawing= 15mm
    • ARS= 400um/10
    • ARS= 40um

    • 15mm= 15000um
    • Magnification= 15000um/40um
    • Mag= 375X
  44. Known as the powerhouse of the cell; digests things to create energy
  45. Holds all cell pieces and fluids inside the cell, lets some things move in and out of the cell
    Cell membrane
  46. Acts like the brain of the cell; contains RNA and DNA
  47. Made of cellulose and acts like a skeleton to hold plants up
    Cell wall
  48. Only found in plant cells; use sunlight to create sugar through photosynthesis
  49. Fluid that fills the cell
  50. The storage bubble in a cell
  51. Protein builders of the cell; combine with RNA to make protein
  52. Found in animal cells; holds enzymes to break down food for the cell
  53. A packaging organelle taht builds lysosomes
    Golgi Apparatus
  54. Define Biology
    Study of living things
  55. Statements of cell theory
    • All organisms are made up of cells
    • All new cells arise from existing cells
    • All processes common to living organisms occur in individual cells
    • Cells contain hereditary material that ensures the passing of characteristics from parent to daughter cells
  56. Define Biogenesis
    The theory of living things developing from other living things
  57. Define Abiogenesis
    A theory stating that non-living things can be transformed into living things ( spontaneous generation)
  58. Makes up 45% of soil volume
    Rock Particles
  59. Changes the property of soil; makes up 25% of soil volume
    Soil water
  60. Chemical composition is different from that of the atmosphere; makes up 25% of soil volume
    Soil air
  61. often decay, makes up 5% of soil volume
    Organic matter
  62. The A Horizon is what?
    Organic matter; it is a darker color, and is near the soild surface
  63. What is the B Horizon?
    Wash from the surface level or by alteration of the parent material
  64. What is the C horizon?
    Parent Material; relatively unaltered deposit; in SK it is between 50cm-100cm
  65. Define Chernozemic
    • high organic matter
    • found in southern prairie
  66. Define Solonetzic
    • Grassland-Forest transition soil
    • high sodium content
  67. Define Luvisolic
    • Forest soil of central SK
    • Sandy A Horizon
    • High clay content in B Horizon
  68. Define Brunisolic
    • Boreal Forest soils
    • Very sandy
  69. Levels of Ecology in order from largest to smallest:
    • Biosphere
    • Biome
    • Ecosystem
    • Community
    • Population
  70. Give an example of a food chain:
    Mosquito --> Dragonfly --> Frog
  71. Which soil, located in southern SK has a dark surface horizon that is high in organic matter?
  72. Biogeochemical interactions: Water, Nitrogen Fixation, Phosphorus, Plants
    • Water is absorbed into the soil for plants to use
    • Nitrogen Fixation occurs in soil for plants to use
    • The major reservoir for phosphorus is rock and soil
    • Plants take in Carbon and release oxygen. Plants are in soil
  73. What is a niche?
    utilization of biotic and abiotic resources
  74. What is a habitat?
    Place the organism lives
  75. What is carrying capacity?
    The maximum population size that an environment can support at a particular time with no degradation to the habitat
  76. What is a Biome?
    A terrestrial ecosystem largely determined by climate and characterized by organisms best suited to the environment
  77. How could you count a plant population?
    Quadratic or Transect
  78. How could you count consumer populations?
    Counting, Plot Estimation, Mark and Recapture
  79. What is population?
    A group of organisms of one species that live in the same place at the same time
  80. Define Ecology:
    The study of living and non-living components of the environment and of the interactions that affect biological species.
  81. Define exponential growth
    Almost any organism provided with ideal conditions for growth and reproduction will experience a rapid increase in its population
  82. Define logistic growth
    Most populations go through a number of growth phases, which can be represented on a logistic growth curve.
  83. Density dependant limiting factors are defined as?
    When factors that control population size operate more strongly on large populations than on small ones.
  84. Define Density independent limiting factors:
    Natural occurances that affect a population
  85. What is symbioses?
    Living together
  86. What is steady state?
    Average growth rate is 0, rise and fall of the population averages out to 0.
  87. Carrying capacity, define:
    If you draw a horizontal line through the middle of the steady state region, the line will tell us how big the population is in teh steady state; tells us carrying capactiy.
  88. Define Climate:
    The weather conditions of a location averaged over many years
  89. Define weather:
    The day to day environmental conditions in a location
  90. Which biogeochemical processes does water participate in?
    • Photosynthesis
    • Digestion
    • Cellular Respiration
  91. What is another name for the water cycle?
    Hydrologic Cycle
  92. Macronutrients important to life on earth are?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
  93. What % of the atmosphere is composed of Nitrogen?
  94. What process to plants adn animals depend on for their nitrogen source?
    Nitrogen Fixation
  95. How does the phosphorus cycle differ from the other cycles?
    Atmosphere is not involved
  96. What are the four biogeochemical cycles?
    • Water Cycle
    • Carbon Cycle
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Phosphorus Cycle
  97. Define Ecological Succession:
    The replacement of an existing community by a different community over a period of time
  98. Define Pioneer Species:
    An organism that colonizes an area void of living things.
  99. Define Climax community:
    A relatively stable collection of plants and animals that results from ecological succession
  100. Define Tropical Rainforest:
    • Located near the equator
    • Av. Rainfall is between 1.5m and 2.5m each year
    • Not a single dry season
  101. Define Taiga
    • Has young soil with poor nutritional stability
    • Has the least amount of animals
    • Largest biome in Canada
  102. Define Savannah
    • Soil is porous and a thin layer of nutrient rich humus
    • Dry and wet seasons
  103. Define Desert
    • Sandy, coarse soild with little organic matter
    • Found in hot climates
  104. Define Freshwater
    Has less than 1% salt
  105. Define Tundra
    • Located in the Northern part of the World
    • Has permafrost
  106. Define Estuary
    Partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it with a free connection to the open sea
  107. What is the quadrat method?
    • fixed area
    • Rectangular, ratio 2:1
    • Site placement: random
    • Used to predict populations for an entire area
  108. Define Transect Method
    • Provides baseline for sampling
    • Straight line across area
    • Line Placement: Random
    • used when populations change drastically in area
  109. Define Counting method
    Count each one in the population
  110. Define plot estimation
    Estimate the # of individuals in a plot area and expand to larger area
  111. Define Mark and Recapture
    traps are set to capture a species which are then marked and released. ( Any marked species that are recaptured are taken into consideration when calculating the estimated population)
  112. What are the 3 dispersion patterns?
    • Clumped: Clumped together in small groups, common in nature
    • Uniform: Spaced evenly in an area- results from interaction among individual of a population
    • Random: Spaced unpredictably, very rare due to environmental conditions
  113. What are the factors that determine carrying capacity?
    • Materials and Energy
    • Food Chains
    • Competition
    • Density
  114. What does crop rotation do?
    • Increases yield
    • decreases pests and disease

    Rotate between cereal, legume adn summer fallow
  115. What are the four cereals?
    • Wheat
    • Barley
    • Oat
    • Rye
  116. What are the oil seeds?
    • Canola
    • Flax
    • Mustard
    • Sunflower
  117. What are the pulse crops?
    • Lentil
    • Chickpea
    • Pea
    • Beans
  118. What are the forage crops?
    • Alfalfa
    • Wheat grass/ bromes
  119. What are the different types of crops?
    • Cereals
    • Oil
    • Pulse
    • Forage
  120. Define Asexual reproduction
    Any method of reproduction that requires only one parent or parent cell
  121. What are the six types of Asexual reproduction?
    • Rhizomes: underground stem that sends out shoots from nodes
    • Tuber: modified rhizomes specialized for storage that produces new plants from "buds"
    • Bulb: underground bud containing fleshy leaves and a short stem
    • Stolon: above ground horizontal stem that produces new roots and shoots
    • Cuttings: a piece from the source plant is cut off and placed in suitable media to grow
    • Grafting: Where tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse wiht those of another
  122. Define Sexual reproduction
    Reproduction involving the contribution of genetic material from two parents
  123. How does sexual reproduction work?
    Pollen interacts with the pistil to produce seed that will grow into a new plant with new genetic material
  124. What are the advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction
    • ADVANTAGES: Allows plants that are well adapted to the environment to produce identical copies, can make multiple copies of the same plant quickly and easily, doesn't rely on another species for propogation
    • DISADVANTAGES: No genetic variation, copies are relatively close to parent
  125. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Sexual reproduction
    • ADVANTAGES: allows genetic variation, seeds are durable and some hibernate, seeds can be carried away from parent plants
    • DISADVANTAGES: sometimes rely on other species for transfer of pollen
  126. Define pollination
    transfer of pollen from the anther to stigma
  127. Define Fertilization
    Fusion of a sperm nucleus wiht an egg nucleus
  128. What is a monocot?
    A seed with only one cotyledon
  129. What is a dicot?
    A seed with 2 cotyledons
  130. The radicle of a seed will become what?
    The primary root
  131. What does the root do?
    • Collects nutrients and water
    • anchors the plant
  132. What does the stem do?
    • carry nutrients and water
    • holds up the plant
  133. What does the leaf do?
    • Photosynthesis
    • Gas exchanger
  134. What is the job of the flower?
    • attracts pollinators
    • reproductive organs
  135. What are the two types of protective tissue?
    • Epidermis
    • Cuticle
  136. What are the 3 types of fundamental tissue
    • parenchyma
    • collenchyma
    • schlerenchyma
  137. What are the 2 types of vascular tissue?
    • xylem
    • phloem
  138. What are the two meristematic tissues?
    • Apical meristem
    • Vascular cambiam