Preanesthetic 4

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  1. Name the 2 main classes of preanesthetic drugs
    • anticholinergics
    • tranquilizers and sedatives
  2. List the 3 main classes of tranquilizers and sedatives
    • phenothiazines
    • benzodiazepines
    • thiazine derivatives
  3. Name 3 specific thiazine derivative drugs
    • xylazine-Rompun
    • medetomidine-Domitor
    • detomidine-Dormosedan
  4. What is the mode of action of thiazine derivatives?
    they are alpha-2 agonists
  5. List the 2 parts of the autonomic nervous system
    • parasympathetic nervous system
    • sympathetic nervous system
  6. List the 2 types of parasympathetic receptors
    • muscarinic
    • nicotinic
  7. List the 4 types of sympathetic receptors
    • alpha-1
    • alpha-2
    • beta-1
    • beta-2
  8. What is the main effect of alpha-1 stimulation?
    vasoconstriction - pale skin, dries up runny nose
  9. What is the main effect of alpha-2 stimulation?
    sedation - by preventing release of norepinephrine
  10. What is the main effect of beta-1 stimulation?
    increases heart rate and force of contraction-pounding heart.
  11. What is the main effect of beta-2 stimulation?
    vasodilation - blushing, bronchodilation
  12. Xylazine-Rompun is available in what 2 concentrations?
    • 20 mg/ml
    • 100 mg/ml
  13. If you calculate that you need 1ml of 20 mg/ml xylazine for your patient, and you accidentally draw up 1 ml of 100 mg/ml xylazine and give it your patient, will this cause a problem?
    yea - maybe a dead kind of problem. 5x overdose.
  14. Xylazine can be administered via what 2 routes?
    IV, IM
  15. Can xylazine be used in combinations? With what other drugs?
    yes - ketamine, opioids, barbiturates, inhalants
  16. Can xylazine be used in healthy, exercise tolerant patients?
  17. Should xylazine be used in sick, old, or debilitated patients?
  18. Which drug, at normal doses, actually sedates the patient more - acepromazine or xylazine?
  19. Is xylazine a muscle relaxant?
  20. Is xylazine analgesic?
  21. List the adverse effects of xylazine.
    • cardiovascular depression
    • respiratory depression
    • vomiting
    • abdominal distension
    • personality changes
    • respond to loud noises
    • profound sleep
    • avoid in liver and kidney disease dur to liver metabolism and kidney excretion
    • transient hyperglycemia
  22. What effect does xylazine have on the cardiovascular system?
    cardiovascular depressant - decreases heart rate, blood pressure
  23. What other preanesthetic drug can we use to minimize the cardiovascular effects of xylazine?
  24. What effect does xylazine have on the respiratory system?
    respiratory depression - hypoventilation. maybe cyanosis
  25. Is xylazine an emetic?
    yes - causes vomiting
  26. What percent of dogs vominting after administration of xylazine?
  27. What percent of cats vomiting after administration of xylazine?
  28. What adverse effect can xylazine have on the abdomens of ruminants and dogs?
    can cause bloating
  29. What can we do to prevent bloating in the dogs that we anesthetize?
    • avoid giving xylazine to breeds of dogs prone to bloating, like Great Danes and German Shepherds
    • also, when we turn an anesthetized patients from one side to the other turn them feet down instead of feet up
  30. Can patients who seem to be deeply sedated by xylazine still bite or kick?
  31. Is it OK to use xylazine in patients with liver or kidney disease?
  32. Does it usually matter much to us if xylazine gives our patients a transient hyperglycemia? When does it matter to us?
    no-only matters to us if we are drawing blood for lab tests and are particularly interested in blood glucose levels
  33. What drug is a specific reverser for xylazine-Rompun?
  34. How does yohimbine work?
    yhimbine molecules occupy alpha-2 receptors without causing any effect. Keep the xylazine molecules off so the patient wakes up
  35. How is yohimbine administered?
    IV (can be given IM)
  36. Does yohimbine reverse diazepam or acepromazine?
  37. Which alpha-2 agonist has the longer duration of action and analgesia-xylazine-Rompun or medetomidine-Domitor?
  38. Which alpha-2 agonist has more alpha-2 effect and less alpha-1 effect, minimizing undesirable side effects - xylazine or medetomidine?
  39. Medetomidine can be administered via what 2 routes?
    IM, IV
  40. Can medetomidine be used in healthy, exercise tolerant patients?
  41. Should medetomidine be used in sick, old, or debilitated patients?
  42. List the adverse side effects caused by medetomidine
    • bradycardia
    • respiratory depression
    • hypertension
    • vomiting
    • diuresis
    • cyanosis
  43. Does medetomidine cause bradycardia?
  44. Which drug causes a more profound bradycardia - xylazine or medetomidine?
  45. How low can a dog's heart rate get with medetomidine?
    40 bpm
  46. Since medetomidine causes diuresis, what should we do with our canine patients as soon as they can stand well enough after recovery from medetomidine?
    take them outside so they can urinate
  47. Why does medetomidine cause cyanosis?
    causes decreased blood flow through peripheral tissue
  48. If our canine patient develops cyanosis after administration of medetomidine, does this mean that he is definitely oxygen deprived?
    probably not. you can check his hemoglobin/oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter and give supplement oxygen if you want to
  49. Should we check just gum color when monitoring a patient given medetomidine?
    no. gum color is inadequate for monitoring purposes since medetomidine can cause cyanosis
  50. What drug is usedto reverse medetomidine-Domitor?
  51. How is atipamezole-Antisedan administered?
    IM or IV
Card Set
Preanesthetic 4
Clinical Practice
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