Card Set Information
Name the 2 main classes of preanesthetic drugs
tranquilizers and sedatives
List the 3 main classes of tranquilizers and sedatives
Name 3 specific thiazine derivative drugs
What is the mode of action of thiazine derivatives?
they are alpha-2 agonists
List the 2 parts of the autonomic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
List the 2 types of parasympathetic receptors
List the 4 types of sympathetic receptors
What is the main effect of alpha-1 stimulation?
vasoconstriction - pale skin, dries up runny nose
What is the main effect of alpha-2 stimulation?
sedation - by preventing release of norepinephrine
What is the main effect of beta-1 stimulation?
increases heart rate and force of contraction-pounding heart.
What is the main effect of beta-2 stimulation?
vasodilation - blushing, bronchodilation
Xylazine-Rompun is available in what 2 concentrations?
If you calculate that you need 1ml of 20 mg/ml xylazine for your patient, and you accidentally draw up 1 ml of 100 mg/ml xylazine and give it your patient, will this cause a problem?
yea - maybe a dead kind of problem. 5x overdose.
Xylazine can be administered via what 2 routes?
Can xylazine be used in combinations? With what other drugs?
yes - ketamine, opioids, barbiturates, inhalants
Can xylazine be used in healthy, exercise tolerant patients?
Should xylazine be used in sick, old, or debilitated patients?
Which drug, at normal doses, actually sedates the patient more - acepromazine or xylazine?
Is xylazine a muscle relaxant?
Is xylazine analgesic?
List the adverse effects of xylazine.
respond to loud noises
avoid in liver and kidney disease dur to liver metabolism and kidney excretion
What effect does xylazine have on the cardiovascular system?
cardiovascular depressant - decreases heart rate, blood pressure
What other preanesthetic drug can we use to minimize the cardiovascular effects of xylazine?
What effect does xylazine have on the respiratory system?
respiratory depression - hypoventilation. maybe cyanosis
Is xylazine an emetic?
yes - causes vomiting
What percent of dogs vominting after administration of xylazine?
What percent of cats vomiting after administration of xylazine?
What adverse effect can xylazine have on the abdomens of ruminants and dogs?
can cause bloating
What can we do to prevent bloating in the dogs that we anesthetize?
avoid giving xylazine to breeds of dogs prone to bloating, like Great Danes and German Shepherds
also, when we turn an anesthetized patients from one side to the other turn them feet down instead of feet up
Can patients who seem to be deeply sedated by xylazine still bite or kick?
Is it OK to use xylazine in patients with liver or kidney disease?
Does it usually matter much to us if xylazine gives our patients a transient hyperglycemia? When does it matter to us?
no-only matters to us if we are drawing blood for lab tests and are particularly interested in blood glucose levels
What drug is a specific reverser for xylazine-Rompun?
How does yohimbine work?
yhimbine molecules occupy alpha-2 receptors without causing any effect. Keep the xylazine molecules off so the patient wakes up
How is yohimbine administered?
IV (can be given IM)
Does yohimbine reverse diazepam or acepromazine?
Which alpha-2 agonist has the longer duration of action and analgesia-xylazine-Rompun or medetomidine-Domitor?
Which alpha-2 agonist has more alpha-2 effect and less alpha-1 effect, minimizing undesirable side effects - xylazine or medetomidine?
Medetomidine can be administered via what 2 routes?
Can medetomidine be used in healthy, exercise tolerant patients?
Should medetomidine be used in sick, old, or debilitated patients?
List the adverse side effects caused by medetomidine
Does medetomidine cause bradycardia?
Which drug causes a more profound bradycardia - xylazine or medetomidine?
How low can a dog's heart rate get with medetomidine?
Since medetomidine causes diuresis, what should we do with our canine patients as soon as they can stand well enough after recovery from medetomidine?
take them outside so they can urinate
Why does medetomidine cause cyanosis?
causes decreased blood flow through peripheral tissue
If our canine patient develops cyanosis after administration of medetomidine, does this mean that he is definitely oxygen deprived?
probably not. you can check his hemoglobin/oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter and give supplement oxygen if you want to
Should we check just gum color when monitoring a patient given medetomidine?
no. gum color is inadequate for monitoring purposes since medetomidine can cause cyanosis
What drug is usedto reverse medetomidine-Domitor?
How is atipamezole-Antisedan administered?
IM or IV