Genetics Chapter 1

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Genetics Chapter 1
2012-01-23 16:46:36

chapter 1 of genetics text book
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  1. genome
    the full DNA sequence of an organism or the full DNA or RNA sequence of a virus.
  2. chromosome
    the genetic material that is organized into structures.
  3. genes
    specific sequences of nucleotides that describe the traits that are passed on from parent to offspring.
  4. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  5. RNA
    ribonucleic acid
  6. nucleotides
    the building blocks of DNA consisting of the sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a base.
  7. bases
    adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine (in RNA, uracil replaced thymine)
  8. allele
    the alternative versions of genes that account for variations in inherited characters.
  9. homozygous
    identical alleles for a trait
  10. heterozygous
    different alleles for a gene
  11. genotype
    the complete genetic makeup of a organism (interacts with the environment, external and internal, to produce the phenotype)
  12. phenotype
    all the observable properties an organism has
  13. transmission genetics (classical genetics)
    the subdiscipline dealing with how genes and genetic traits are transmitted from generation to generation and how genes recombine.
  14. molecular genetics
    the subdiscipline dealing with the molecular structure and function of genes.
  15. population genetics
    the subdiscipline that studies heredity in groups of individuals for traits that are determined by one or a few genes.
  16. quantitative genetics
    also considers the heredity of traits in groups of individuals, but the traits of concern are determined by many genes simultaneously.
  17. prokaryote
    (prenuclear) do not have a nuclear envelope surrounding their DNA, making them all bacteria.
  18. eukaryote
    (true nucleus) organism with cells within which the genetic material is located in the nucleus, can be unicellular or multi-cellular.
  19. nucleus
    a discrete structure bounded by a nuclear envelope.