of cells and biochemicals that travel in lymphatic vessels.
excess fluid away from the interstitial spaces, and to the blood stream, and transports fats to the bloodstream.
defend the body against diseases.
immune factors. they have blind loops.
The walls are similar
but thinner than those of veins.
Lymphatic vessels are composed of three layers.
endothelial lining inner
smooth muscle middle
connective tissue outer.
Larger vessels lead to
lymph nodes and then to larger lymphatic trunks.
drain lymph from the lymphatic vessels. they ar enamed for the reagions they serve such as lumbar, intestinal, intercostal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, and jugular.
thoracic duct is composed of
Thoracic duct and right thoracic duct.
Thoracic duct end's at the
Afferent lymphatic vessel leads to
Lymph nodes. going in to it.
Efferent lymphatic vessels
Leave the lymph nodes and go to the lymphatic trunk. that then lead to collecting duct then to subvlavian vein.
Lymph comes form
Plasma which is left from the blood vessels to the tissues which are picked up by the lymph vessels.
Lymph is essentially
tissue fluid that has entered a lymphatic capillary, Lymph formation depends on tissue fluid formation.
Lyphatic vessels play a
role in absorption of dietary fats. Delivering excess fluids to the bloodstream, delivering foreign particles to the lymph nodes.
Capillary blood pressure
fliters water and small molecules form the plasma.
Muscle activity largely influnces
movement of lymph through the lymphatic vessels via action of skeletal muscles, respiratory movements, smooth muscle in the larger lymphatic vessels, valves in the lymphatic vessels.
are made in the Germinal center of the lymph node.
T cells are made in the
medulla of a lymph node. which are more antiviral.
A T cell count below
500 is very dangerous.
Abnormal lymph node.
Lymph nodes or lymph glands are located along the lymphatic pathways
they contain lymphocytes and macrophages to fight invading pathogens.
is the area coming out of a vessel or area like a lymph node.
Locations of lymph nodes.
Cervical near the neck, thoracic near the heart, axillary armpit, abdominal stomach, pelvic lymph node near pelvis, inguinal near the gonads of male or female.
Lymph nodes have two primary functions.
filter potentially harmful particles from the lymph, act with immune surveillance provided by macrophages and lymphocytes.
along with the red bone marrow
the lymph nodes are centers for lymphocyte production. Agranular.
the Thymus is larger during
infancy and during puberty.
it is the site for T lmphocyte or T cell production, Secretes protein hormones celled thymosins.
The Spleen is
the largest lymphatic organ, it has sinuses filled with blood, contains two tissue types White pulp lymphocytes, Red pulp red blood cells, lymphocytes and macrophages.
disease causing agents, bacteria, viruses, complex microorganisms, and spores of multi cellular organisms.
The body can prevent entry of pathogns or destroy tehm with defense mechanisms such as
innate defenses these are general defenses, the protect against many pathogens.
known as immunity, more specific and precise targeting specific antigens, are carried out by lymphocytes.
unbroken skin and mucous membranes.
Enzymes in various body fluids kill pathogens. Interferons are hormone like peptides and stimulate phagocytosis.
natural killer cells
distinct type of lymphocyte that secretes perforins that lyse virus-infected cells and cancer cells.
a tissue response to injury that helps prevent the spread of infectious agents into nearby tisues.
Nurophils, monocytes, and macrophages engulf and destroy foreign particles and cells. Chemicals attract these phagocytic cells to the injury and this is called chemotaxis. Nurophils and moncytes are the most active cells.
elevated body temp inhibits microbial growth and increased phagocytic activity. interleukin 1 is a substance the is produced by cells.
Adaptive immunity is the third line of defense which known as
Immunity. It is based on the ability to distinguis molecules that are part of teh body self, form non self.
Antigens are molecuels that
can elicit an immune response. Antigens can be proteins polysaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids.
Haptens are small
molecules that are not natigenic by themselves, but when the combine with a large molecule can stimulate an immune response.
A lymphocyte must be activated before it can
respond to an antigen.
T cell activation requires antigen presenting cell accessory cell and may include macrophages, B cells and several other types of cells.
HLA must match for
Transplant. such as a liver given to another person for survival.
siginals out to attack. little dots relesed form cells to attact a forien substance that has been detected in the body.
lgG immunoglobulin that has a function.
of defending aginst a needlstick
defends against bacteria and viruses in Saliva
Mothers cord blood to the child.
Exocrine gland secreations Posin IVY Promotes inflammation and allergic reactions.
Naturally acquired active immunity is
exposure to live pathogens eg. the community
Artificially acquired active immunity is
exposure to a vaccine containing weakened or dead pathogens or their componets. given at a clinic.
Artificially acquired passive immunity is
injections of gamma globulin containg antibodies or antitoxin Neddlestick. short term immunity without stimulation an immune reponse.
Naturally acquired passive immunity is
Antibodies passed to fetus form pregnant woman with active immunity or to newborn through beast milk form a woman with active immunity MOther.
the immune system fails to distinguish self from non self and the body produces antibodies call autoantibodies and cytotoxic T cells to attact the body's tissues and organs.
1981-1982 CDC reports.Once an individual was infected the helper T cells would die.