Chapter 4

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Chapter 4
2012-01-25 23:33:31

Anatomical Terminology
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  1. abdomin/o
  2. anter/o
    front (side of body)
  3. brachi/o
  4. caud/o
  5. cephal/o
  6. cervic/o
  7. chondr/o
  8. crani/o
  9. cubit/o
  10. dist/o
    farthest (away from beginning of structure)
  11. dors/o
    back(side of body)
  12. femor/o
    femur, thight bone
  13. gastr/o
  14. genit/o
  15. glute/o
  16. infer/o
    below, lower
  17. inguin/o
  18. later/o
  19. lumb/o
    low back
  20. medi/o
  21. nas/o
  22. orbit/o
    eye socket
  23. or/o
  24. ot/o
  25. patell/o
    patella, kneecap
  26. proxim/o
    nearest (to beginning of structure)
  27. pelv/o
  28. poster/o
    back (side of body)
  29. thorac/o
  30. scapul/o
    scapula, shoulder blade
  31. spin/o
  32. stern/o
    sternum, breast bone
  33. super/o
    above, upper
  34. ventr/o
    belly (side of body)
  35. vertebr/o
    vertebra, back bone
  36. superficial
    a term meaning nearer the surface
  37. supine
    a term meaning to lie face up
  38. prone
    a term meaning to lie face down
  39. deep
    a term meaning futher below from the surface, or further inside the body
  40. Anatomical position
    • Pt is:
    • *standing upright
    • *Legs/feet together
    • *feet pointing forward
    • *arms down at side
    • *Palms facing forward
    • *Arms looking straight ahead
  41. section
    A two-dimensional image of the body (ex. xray) taken along one of the planes.
  42. Front (or cortonal) plane
    • A vertical plane that runs from side to side; it slices body into anterior and posterior portions
    • *cuts into front and back half
  43. Sagittal plane
    Also a vertical plane but runs from front to back, slices body into left and right sections
  44. transverse plane
    • only horizonal plane; slices body into upper and lower portions.
    • can be anywhere along the body
  45. longitudinal section
    • used to describe internal views of the body
    • lengthwise slice along the long axis of a stucture
    • Ex: cut down the length of the arm
  46. cross-section
    • produced by a slice perpendicular to the long axis of a structure.
    • Ex. cut across the upper arm yields a cross section view
  47. nasal
    nose (duh)
  48. otic
  49. oral
    mouth (duh)
  50. cervical
  51. thoracic
  52. sternal
    center of chest
  53. axillary
  54. brachial
    pertaining to the arm
  55. antecubital
    pertaining to in front of the elbow

    ante + cubit/o + -al
  56. Abdominal
    pertaining to the abdomen
  57. Umbilical
    a term meaning the region around the navel
  58. pelvic
    pertaining to pelvis
  59. inguinal
    pertaining to groin, or upper thigh area
  60. genital
    pertaining to the genitals
  61. Femoral
    pertaining to the femur/thigh
  62. patellar
    pertaining to kneecap
  63. plantar
    a term meaning the sole of the foot
  64. gluteal
    pertaining to the buttocks
  65. lower extremity
    a phase used to refer to the entire leg
  66. otic
    pertaining to the ear
  67. palmar
    a term meaning the palm of the hand
  68. popliteal
    a term meaning the creased area behind the knee
  69. scapular
    pertaining to the shoulder blade
  70. sternal
    pertaining to breast bone
  71. trunk
    a term meaning the torso, excluding the head and extremities
  72. -upper extremity
    a phrase used to refer to the entire arm
  73. 4 body cavities
    cranial, spinal, thoracic and abdominopelvic
  74. viscera
    body's internal organs
  75. cranial cavity
    lies inside skull and contains the brain, brain is protected by membrane sac called meninges
  76. meninges
    membrane sac protecting brain
  77. spinal cavity
    • formed by canal through vertebrae
    • contains the spinal cord
    • spinal cord is also protected by the meninges
  78. thoracic cavity
    • found enclosed by ribs and separated from abdominopelic cavity by diaphragm muscle
    • contains organs such as lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, aorta, and thymus gland
    • can be divided into one central and two side regions
  79. abdominopelvic cavity
    • large cavity generally subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities (no clear structure indicating where one cavity stops and other begins)
    • Organs in this cavity are protected by membrane covering called peritoneum
  80. peritoneum
    membrane covering (protecting) organs in abdominopelvic cavity
  81. 2 methods health personnel can use to divide abdominopelvic cavity
    • Clinical divisions (which are the quadrants)
    • Anatomical divisions (which are the regions)
  82. R hypochondriac region
    • (hypo = below, chondr/o = cartilage, iac = pertaining to)
    • right lateral side of upper row, under lower ribs that are connected to the sternum by cartilage
  83. Epigastric
    (epi = above;, gastr/o = stomach;, ic = pertaining to) middle area of upper row, overlaying stomach
  84. Left hypochondriac
    left lateral side of upper row
  85. right lumbar
    (lumb/o = low back;, -ar = pertaining to) : right lateral side of middle row near waist
  86. Umbilical
    middle area of middle row containing navel (also called umbilicus)
  87. Left lumbar
    left lateral side of middle row
  88. right inguinal
    (inguin/o = groin; -al = pertaining to): right lateral side of lower row near groin
  89. Hypogastric
    (hypo = below;, gastr/o = stomach; -ic = pertaining to) : middle area of lower row
  90. Left inguinal
    left lateral side of lower row
  91. Suffix: -al
    pertaining to
  92. Suffix: -ar
    pertaining to
  93. Suffix: -iac
    pertaining to
  94. Suffix: -ic
    pertaining to
  95. Suffix: -ior
    pertaining to
  96. Prefix: ante-
    in front of
  97. Prefix: epi-
  98. Prefix: hypo-
  99. Prefix: retro