-People used to think people got sick/died as a punishment for their sins
-each humour was an attribute
-Had island granted by duke, carefully observed and documented stars every night
-Proved crystal spheres wrong, found supernova
-Detailed astronomical data
-Measured wine barrels
-Explained planetary motion (elliptical orbits)/orbits, magnetic force from sun keeping planets in orbit
-Rolled balls of different masses from different angles
-all accelerated at same rate when falling
-improved on telescope
-first to point telescope to the sky
-stuff goes around sun, Jupiter's moons, sun spots, moon mountains
-universe composed of stuff similar to what earth made of, not ethereal or perfect
-church hated him: humans were no longer the center of the world, God was no longer in a specific place
-1663- found guilty of teaching Copernicus, which was condemned
-explained everything thru math
-numbers for Kepler's theory (ellipse equation)
-also a philosopher
-Laws of motion
-inspired by Kepler and Galileo
-began idea of universal laws
-but, still believed that God was the force that moved things
- Dissection to determine how to heart beats
-Also, flow of blood (discovery of circulation)
-to determine how the heart beats
-process of elimination/LOGIC
-compares humans to other animals
-NOT thru observation, but thru reason
-Application of elements of the Scientific Revolution to human society --> SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Church Dogma now under question, challenged by Enlightenment
God? Deism: God created the world but natural law now rules it actively (God inactive)
Rationalism: reason above all
We can do anything! mentality
Separation of mind and matter. "I think therefore I am"
-Cartesian dualism: mind can't be doubted but body and material can
-Pope was like lolno
-Tried to tie together church and rationalism
-Pascal's wager- If you believe in God, and he exists, then you gain eternity in heaven. If not you lose nothing."
Man is by nature free, no one should have more power.
Sovereignty is in hands of the people. Man agrees to be governed because he needs protection. Protection is government's duty to the people. All men should
jointly make laws, but it is government's duty to reinforce these laws.
--> consent of people neccesary, rights
Government should be divided into three branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. Executive and
legislative branches should work together, judicial is separate. Legislative branch makes and amends laws, executive branch manages war affairs, and
judicial protects the people.
--> balance of powers
Man is born into a free state, nature ties them down. Every man is forced to be free, and must follow the whole body politic. Property belongs to the people, but is protected by the state. The general will is always in the right, and if they make a decision that appears
to be badly thought out, then they have fooled by civilization. but not corrupted.
The Social Contract
--> forced to be free
Locke vs Rousseau
Locke holds that we have natural rights, rights that inhere in us as human beings independently of our being members of a political community. Rousseau denies it, maintaining that all rights come from the state. This has sweeping consequences for the legitimacy of
government power. Locke holds that government authority is legitimate only within certain limits; it is bounded by our natural rights, which we construct governments to preserve. Since Rousseau recognizes no such rights, he recognizes no such bounds. For him, government may exercise authority over anything to promote the common good. Note: That doesn’t mean
we have no rights; we have the rights the government allots to us, and no others.
-condemned Christianity as fanatical and unreasonable
-was deist, became atheist
-"this world is only a mass of molecules"
-wrote encyclopedia--> helped in crusade against old French society
-criticized traditional religion
-ideal of religion toleration: "all men are brothers under God"
--> deism is the "halfway house between religion and bisbelief"
-Curves are heavenly shapes not earthly (but what about projectiles aristotle?)
-crystal spheres (but what about craters?)
-nonheliocentric (but heliocentric)
-circular orbits (but kepler's ellipses?)
-weight affects speed of fall (gravity?)
his universe (pre-copernican)
1) spheres surrounding the earth were made of cystalline transparent substance
2) moved in circular orbits because that is the "perfect" kind of movement, appropriate for "perfect" heavenly bodied
3) Orbs of light were embedded in the moving concentric spheres
4) 10 spheres, first 8 were planets, moon, sun and stars, 9th moved stars, 10th moved itself and all others
5) beyond 10th sphere was God and the saved souls
protection of some of the people
ex: Catherine the Great
Religious toleration beneficial for autocratic rulers