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  1. Russian Geography
    • Northern
    • Lots of non-arable land (lots of wheat)
    • Very big (1/6 of the world's land mass)
    • variable terrain
    • East is less fertile, west is more populated (Moscow in West)
    • URAL MOUNTAIN: north-south mountain range splitting the country in two
    • natural resources: Oil, fur, timber
    • both East and west
  2. Russian expansion
    • East to Siberia (natural resources)

Drive across Northern Asia
-Mostly orthodox christian
-Mongol Khanaterules Russia to 1480

    • -Muscovy: area around Moscow
-Princes of muscovy ledrevolt against Mongols

    • -1547: Russian ruler: "tsar"
-landlocked in1600, but faulty declarations of "new Rome"

    • -valuable grain resource in Mongolia

-fought against Ottomans for Caspian Sea, Black Sea

    • -fought against Swedes for Baltic
  3. Russian society and politics and religion
    • -freedom of peasantry transformation led to worse conditions
-ethnic and religious pluralism
-Islam replaces Christianity
-peasant life like slavery, landgrants--> serfdom (after rebellion)

    • -papacy of Latin world weak

    • -moscow was the "third rome"
  4. Catherine
    • 1762-1796
    • -expansion west
    • -canal system: improve trade
    • -fur, gold, iron, timber
    • -diplomacy
    • -westernizing Russian elite

    • -overthrew husband by winning over nobles<-- LAND, granted serfs
    • -administrative reforms
  5. Peter the Great Overview
    • 1689-1725

    • -TYRANT

    • -Known for Westernizing Russia, admirer of Louis XIV
-Sent half sister (Sophia) and wife to live in a monastery
    • -Tried to gain warm seas
-Started war against Ottomans-->
    • Gained fort of Azor
-Peter disguised himself and travelled across Europe--> Learned modern/western ways
-Industrious-learned techniques for building
-In Great Northern War, Peter gained control of Baltic Sea, and built St. Petersburg
-Pushed European fashion in Russia, destroyed old boyar tradition (Moscow aristocracy)
  6. Peter's Goals
    • -westernize
    • -up size and power
    • -reduce isolation
    • -up power of the tsar
    • -up power of army and state--> ability to stand up to west
  7. Peter's Power
    • -navy to blockade Ottoman--> Black Sea
    • -Great Northern War (1700-1721): his modernized armies broke Swedish control of the Baltic--> more Europe contact
    • -St. Petersberg: window to the west (frech architecture, shaved beards, style)-merit, not birth for army and navy
  8. Peter's Religion
    -Decree of 1716: tsar can rule as he wishes as a Christian ruler--> Russian Orthodox Church under state control, foundries for military arms, increased burdens of serfdom
  9. Peter's Decrees
    • -western dress (only nobility and court)
    • -shaving (aristocracy)
    • -invitation of foreigners (military and trade, pluralism)
    • -compulsory education of the Russian nobility
    • -an instruction to Russian students studying abroad (learn tech and navigation skills)
  10. Changes in Russia: Western Influence
    • -cosmetic changes: shaving (only nobles and court), clothing
    • -Education (of nobility, ignorant peasants)
    • -Military
    • -Great Northern War (Sweden)--> Perceived as great world power by Europe at end (1721)
    • -French language, art, ballet
    • --> NAVY
  11. Changes in Russia: Non-Western
-SERFDOM--> entrenched

    • -No idea of representation in government
-Middle ages economy<-- serfdom

    • -FEUDAL ECONOMY<--lack of capitalism

    thus, westernization was largely superficial (didn't effect govnt or economy)
  12. Cossacks
    • -Russian soldiers with political autonomy
    • -sometimes with tsar, sometimes against
  13. Scientific Revolution overview
    • Yay intellectual history
-except biased toward powerful rich men

    • -connections between science and history: Ottomans and gunpower, Portuguese ships, mining in South America,
    • dropping of the atom bomb (end of World War II)

    Change in worldview: different from Church, Aristotle, Ptolemy
  14. Scientific Revolution Causes

    • -Art--> observations of nature (and anatomy), geometry

    • -Discovery of new old texts (from ancient times)

    • -system of scientific patronage (think Medici)

    • Exploration

    • -Ships, navigation tools, maps
-Psych curiosity stemmed



    • -Printing press

    • -New attitude possible to disagree w/ Catholic church, proves church fallible

    Magic: man has power
  15. Why was the Scientific Revolution in Europe?
    • -Ottomans have monopolies in East, so Europe needed
    • the new tech to expand west (America)
    • -Existence of universities
  16. Overview of a scientist
    • -Freethinkers, curious, pioneers, had time ($, patronage)
-persistance/record-keeping and data

    Why? Commercial value--> kept processes going
  17. Copernicus
    • 1473-1543
    • Created heliocentric model of the universe
    • On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
    • Earth rotates on its axis


-relationship to divinitylessened (earth not really special, god not ruling/science is, etc.)
  18. The four humours
    • -Flagmatic, excessive collar, sanguid, excessive blackbile
    • -Goal is to balance the humours

    -People used to think people got sick/died as a punishment for their sins

    -each humour was an attribute
  19. Brahe
    • -Had island granted by duke, carefully observed and documented stars every night
    • -Proved crystal spheres wrong, found supernova
    • -Detailed astronomical data
  20. Kepler
    • -Measured wine barrels
    • -Explained planetary motion (elliptical orbits)/orbits, magnetic force from sun keeping planets in orbit
  21. Galileo
    • -Rolled balls of different masses from different angles
    • -all accelerated at same rate when falling
    • -improved on telescope
    • -first to point telescope to the sky

    • -stuff goes around sun, Jupiter's moons, sun spots, moon mountains
    • -universe composed of stuff similar to what earth made of, not ethereal or perfect
    • -church hated him: humans were no longer the center of the world, God was no longer in a specific place
    • -1663- found guilty of teaching Copernicus, which was condemned
  22. Descartes (math)
    • -Math, equations
    • -explained everything thru math
    • -numbers for Kepler's theory (ellipse equation)
    • -cartesian grid
    • -also a philosopher
  23. Newton
    • -Laws of motion
    • -inspired by Kepler and Galileo
-discovered gravity

    • -calculus
-began idea of universal laws

    -but, still believed that God was the force that moved things
  24. Harvey
Dissection to determine how to heart beats

    -Also, flow of blood (discovery of circulation)
  25. Aquinas
    • -to determine how the heart beats
    • -process of elimination/LOGIC
    • -compares humans to other animals
    • -NOT thru observation, but thru reason
  26. Enlightenment overview
    • -Application of elements of the Scientific Revolution to human society

    • -observations--> conclusions

    • Church Dogma now under question, challenged by Enlightenment

    • God? Deism: God created the world but natural law now rules it actively (God inactive)

    • Rationalism: reason above all
We can do anything! mentality
  27. Descartes (philosophy)
    • Separation of mind and matter. "I think therefore I am"
    • -Cartesian dualism: mind can't be doubted but body and material can
    • -Pope was like lolno
  28. Pascal
    • -Tried to tie together church and rationalism
    • -Pascal's wager- If you believe in God, and he exists, then you gain eternity in heaven. If not you lose nothing."
  29. Locke
    • Man is by nature free, no one should have more power.
    • Sovereignty is in hands of the people. Man agrees to be governed because he needs protection. Protection is government's duty to the people. All men should
    • jointly make laws, but it is government's duty to reinforce these laws.

    --> consent of people neccesary, rights
  30. Montesquieu
    • Government should be divided into three branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. Executive and
    • legislative branches should work together, judicial is separate. Legislative branch makes and amends laws, executive branch manages war affairs, and
    • judicial protects the people.

    --> balance of powers
  31. Rousseau
    • Man is born into a free state, nature ties them down. Every man is forced to be free, and must follow the whole body politic. Property belongs to the people, but is protected by the state. The general will is always in the right, and if they make a decision that appears
    • to be badly thought out, then they have fooled by civilization. but not corrupted.

    The Social Contract

    --> forced to be free
  32. Locke vs Rousseau
    • Locke holds that we have natural rights, rights that inhere in us as human beings independently of our being members of a political community. Rousseau denies it, maintaining that all rights come from the state. This has sweeping consequences for the legitimacy of
    • government power. Locke holds that government authority is legitimate only within certain limits; it is bounded by our natural rights, which we construct governments to preserve. Since Rousseau recognizes no such rights, he recognizes no such bounds. For him, government may exercise authority over anything to promote the common good. Note: That doesn’t mean
    • we have no rights; we have the rights the government allots to us, and no others.
  33. Diderot
    • 1713-1784
    • -condemned Christianity as fanatical and unreasonable
    • -was deist, became atheist
    • -"this world is only a mass of molecules"
    • -wrote encyclopedia--> helped in crusade against old French society
  34. Voltaire
    • 1694-1778
    • -criticized traditional religion
    • -ideal of religion toleration: "all men are brothers under God"
    • -DEISM GUY
    • --> deism is the "halfway house between religion and bisbelief"
  35. Aristotle
    • -Curves are heavenly shapes not earthly (but what about projectiles aristotle?)
    • -crystal spheres (but what about craters?)
    • -nonheliocentric (but heliocentric)
    • -circular orbits (but kepler's ellipses?)
    • -weight affects speed of fall (gravity?)
  36. Ptolemy
    • his universe (pre-copernican)
    • 1) spheres surrounding the earth were made of cystalline transparent substance
    • 2) moved in circular orbits because that is the "perfect" kind of movement, appropriate for "perfect" heavenly bodied
    • 3) Orbs of light were embedded in the moving concentric spheres
    • 4) 10 spheres, first 8 were planets, moon, sun and stars, 9th moved stars, 10th moved itself and all others
    • 5) beyond 10th sphere was God and the saved souls
  37. Enlightened Despotism
    • protection of some of the people
    • ex: Catherine the Great

    • Religious toleration beneficial for autocratic rulers
    • -loyalty
    • -middle class is tolerated--> helps economy
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