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2012-01-23 20:57:12

Chapter 2 Vocab
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  1. Matter
    any substance which has mass and occupies space
  2. Element
    a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess.
  3. Atoms
    • The basic unit of a chemical element.
    • A typical atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons circling this nucleus.
  4. Nucleus
    The central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.

    The positively charged central core of an atom, containing most of its mass.
  5. Orbital
    An orbital can contain two electrons with paired spins and is often associated with a specific region of an atom.

    The region of negative charge surrounding an atomic nucleus that is associated with an atomic orbital.
  6. Protons
    • A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a
    • POSITIVE electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron.
  7. Neutron
    A subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but ha NO Electrical Charge, present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen
  8. Electrons
    A stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity
  9. Atomic Number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
  10. Atomic Mass
    • The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units.
    • It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atomor to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes
  11. Isotope
    • Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbersof protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
    • Differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element
  12. Chemical Bonds
    an electrical force linking atoms.
  13. Molecules
    • A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental
    • unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction
  14. Compound
    a chemical species that is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically, with covalent or ionic bonds.
  15. Chemical Reaction
  16. A process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic
    • structure of a substance.
    • Bonds break and new bonds form
  17. Molecules
    A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
  18. Ion
    An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
  19. Ionic Bond
    a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion.
  20. Covalent Bond
    a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule.
  21. Nonpolar covalent bond
    electrons are shared equally between the two atoms.
  22. Polar covalent bond
    Unequal sharing of electrons
  23. Hydrogen Bond
    A weak bond between two molecules.
  24. Hydrophilic
    Having an affinity for water; attracted to water
  25. Hydrophobic
    Tending to repel or fail to mix with water; repelled or fear of water.
  26. Acid
    • when added to water releases hydrogen ions (H+), also called protons.
    • Acids are electron pair acceptors.
  27. Base
    • When added to water releases hydroxide (OH-) ions.
    • A substance that can Donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
  28. PH
    a measure of acidity and alkalinity of a solution that is a number on a scale
  29. Salts
    Sodium chloride (NaCl), a white crystalline substance that gives seawater its characteristic taste
  30. Potential Energy
    stored energy, is the ability of a system to do work due to its position or internal structure
  31. Kinetic Energy
    energy of motion
  32. Tempurature
    The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, esp. as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch
  33. Organic Compound
    any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
  34. Empirical formula