Chapter 3 notes: Botany

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  1. Cells are...
    basic unit of life
  2. 4 criteria of Cell theory
    1. All living things are made up of cells

    2. Cells come from division of preexisting cells (cells come from cells)

    3. Cells- smallest unit of protoplasm that is living

    4. Cells have the ability to form a new organism
  3. Protoplasm
    everything inside the cell membrane
  4. Cytoplasm
    everything inside the cell membrane except the nucleus
  5. Cell wall

    -outside of plant cells

    -microfibrils of cellulose, lignin- the walls are made up of it

    -has primary and secondary cell walls
  6. Cell Membrane ( Plasma membrane)
    -regulates passage of materials in and out of the cell

    -surrounds the cytoplasm just inside the cel wall

    -2 layers of lipids with proteins mixed in
  7. Nucleus Image Upload 1
    -controls cell activities

    -nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope)

    - Has chromosomes inside of it (DNA)
  8. Nucleolus
    inside the nucleus.

    -has RNA inside of it.
  9. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    -transports materials in and between cells, some carry out protein synthesis

    -consists of a network of membranes
  10. Ribosomes
    -protein synthesis

    -made up of a subunits- 2 subunits that are composed of RNA and proteins

    -subunits assembled in nucleolus

    -made up of RNA
  11. Rough ER
    Ribosomes distributed on outer surface of ER

    -associated with protein synthesis and storage
  12. Smooth ER
    devoid of ribosomes and associated with lipid secretion
  13. Mitochondrian
    -cellular respiration, release of energy (ATP)

    -they have their own DNA, can reproduce

    - consists of an outer and inner membrane (cristae, which are folded)
  14. Chloroplast (plastid)
    - carry out photosynthesis

    - own DNA

    -contains chlorophyll

    -thylakoids stacked together when forming Grana and fluid like Stroma
  15. Chromoplasts (plastids)
    -synthesize and accumulate carotenoids
  16. Leucoplasts (plastids)

    -may synthesize starches (amyloplasts)

    -synthesizes oils (elaioplasts)
  17. Amyloplasts
    synthesizes starch
  18. Vacuole (central)
    -contains water and other materials enlargment of cells

    -1 to a few vacuoles per cell

    - bounded by vacuolar membranes -tonoplasts

    -filled with cell sap which helps maintain pressure within cell
  19. Golgi Bodies (Dyctosomes)
    forms and packages cell wall materials cellular secretions

    -modifies carbohydrates attached to proteins that are synthesized and packaged in the E.R
  20. Cell cycle
    orderly series of events when cells divide

    -divide into interphase and mitosis
  21. Interphase stages


  22. Mitosis stages



  23. Interphase
    -occupies 90% of cell cycle

    -period when cells are not dividing
  24. (interphase) G1 stage
    -cell increases in size
  25. (interphase) S stage
    -DNA replication takes place
  26. (interphase) G2 stage
    mitochondria and other organelles divide, and microtubules are produced
  27. Mitosis
    -process of the cellular division

    -produces 2 daughter cells with equal amounts of DNA and other substances duplicated during interphase

    --mitosis occurs in meristems
  28. (mitosis) Prophase
    -chromosomes condense by coiling and tightening to become shorter and thicker

    -nuclear envelope fragments and nucleolus disintegrates
  29. (mitosis) Metaphase
    -chromosones align between the poles around the circumference of the spindle at the cell's equator
  30. (mitosis) Anaphase
    -sister chromaids seperate in unison and are pulled to opposite poles with centromeres leading the way
  31. (mitosis) Telophase
    -each group of daughter chromosomes become surrounded by a nuclear envelope

    -daughter chromosomes become longer and thinner

    -nucleoli reappear

    -spindle fibers disintegrate
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Chapter 3 notes: Botany
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