Biology

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studybuddy17
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130107
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Biology
Updated:
2012-01-28 13:41:17
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Biology exam
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Biology Mid-term review
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  1. What are the steps of the scientific method?
    • State the problem
    • Form a hypothesis
    • Create an experiment
    • Collect data
    • Write conclusion
  2. What is the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment?
    Ecology
  3. What is a biotic factor?
    a living part of an ecosystem.
  4. What is a abiotic factor?
    a nonliving part of an ecosystem.
  5. What is the limiting factor?
    factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease.
  6. What is the carrying capacity?
    carrying capacitylargest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support.
  7. What is population density?
    population densitynumber of individuals per unit area.
  8. What is the birth rate?
    the number of births in a population in a certain amount of time.
  9. What is the death rate?
    the number of deaths in a population in a certain amount of time
  10. What is the life span?
    The longest period of life reached by a type of organism
  11. What is a developed country?
    a modern, industrialized country in which people are generally better educated and healthier and live longer than people in undeveloped countries do.
  12. What is a undeveloped country?
    a poorer country with a less advanced economy. Usually have high birth rates and high death rates.
  13. What is exponential growth?
    growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate, J shaped graph
  14. What is logistical growth?
    Population growth pattern that begins with rapid growth, and slows down as the environmental carrying capacity is reached; characterized by an S-shaped curve when graphed.
  15. random sampling
    a method of randomly choosing organisms in a small sample and then estimating total population size.
  16. capture-mark-recapture
    counting population by tagging animals in an initial sample and then estimating total population size after recapturing another sample.
  17. census
    population direct count
  18. prokaryotes
    organisms whose cells lack a nucleus (such as bacteria)
  19. eukaryotes
    organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
  20. cell theory
    idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
  21. plant cell
    A type of cell characterized by a rigid cell wall and the presence of many chloroplasts
  22. animal cell
    A type of cell characterized by the presence of centrioles and lacking a cell wall
  23. mitochondria
    Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
  24. chloroplast
    organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy (sugar)
  25. nucleus
    a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
  26. cell membrane
    thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
  27. cell wall
    a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
  28. photosynthesis
    process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
  29. glycolysis
    first step in releasing the energy of glucose (6 carbon), in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid (each with 3 carbons)
  30. light-dependent reactions
    reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to split water into oxygen and produce ATP and NADPH
  31. light-independent reactions
    reactions of photosynthesis that does not directly require light; it uses the products of the light-dependent reactions to convert carbon dioxide to sugar
  32. aerobic cellular respiration
    the process by which cells use oxygen to obtain usable energy (ATP) from the breakdown of glucose
  33. anaerobic cellular respiration
    the process by which cells breakdown glucose in the cytoplasm without the presence of oxygen.
  34. fermentation
    also called anaerobic respiration, the process by which cells break down sugar to release energy without using oxygen (in yeast produce alcohol)
  35. ATP
    (adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
  36. ADP
    (Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
  37. enzyme
    specialized proteins or catalyst that speed up chemical reactions
  38. diffusion
    process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated. DOES NOT REQUIRE ENERGY
  39. facilitated diffusion
    when substances transport across cell membranes using protein carrier molecules. Still move from greater to lesser concentration so DO NOT require energy.
  40. osmosis
    diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane from greater to lesser concentration.
  41. isotonic solution
    the concentration of water is the same inside and outside the cell.
  42. hypertonic solution
    a solution in which the concentration of water is greater inside the cell than out, so cell shrinks.
  43. hypotonic solution
    a solution in which the concentration of water is greater outside the cell than in, so cell swells
  44. equilibrium
    When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution
  45. solute
    the dissolved substance in a solution
  46. solvent
    a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
  47. active transport
    the movement of materials through a cell from lesser to greater concentration using energy
  48. endocytosis
    process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
  49. exocytosis
    process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
  50. prokaryotic cell
    cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles (such as bacteria)
  51. virus
    ultramicroscopic infectious particle that reproduces itself only within cells of living hosts
  52. bacteria
    single-celled spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking a nucleus that reproduce by fission or conjugation
  53. endospore
    a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions
  54. protein capsid
    outer coat of all viruses; made of proteins to protect the DNA or RNA inside.
  55. envelope
    a membranelike layer that covers the capsids of some viruses
  56. antibiotics
    chemicals that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
  57. vaccines
    vaccinesweakened infectious particles (bacteria or viral) which allow the host to create an immune response to fight some diseases

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