How is it linked to achievement?
Reading: Deficits in phonological awareness are viewed as the hallmark of basic word reading disabilities. It is, however, the most responsive to intervention of the phonological processing skill areas. Phonological awareness skills should proceed from sensitivity to same verses, different or phonological segments, to an ability to identify and count phonological segments, to an ability to manipulate phonological segments. Storage of phonological information during reading involves creating a sound-based representation of written words in working memory. Deficits in storage of phonological information result in faulty representations in memory, which lead to inaccurate application of sound rules during reading tasks. A deficit in phonological memory does not inevitably lead to poor reading of familiar material, but is more likely to impair decoding of new words, particularly words that are long enough to decode bit by bit as a means of storing intermediate sounds. A deficit in phonological memory may impair reading comprehension for more complex sentences. Naming facility or �rapid automatic naming� is very important to reading achievement. Retrieval of phonological information from long-term memory refers to how the child remembers pronunciations of letters, word segments, or entire words. Reading disabled children may have difficulty in this area, which leads to slow and inaccurate recall of phonological codes from memory. Efficient retrieval of phonological information and execution of sequences of operations are required when readers attempt to decode unfamiliar words. Deficits in this area often result in difficulties with reading fluency.