SOPC - Exam 3 Ch. 5

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lchasheart
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SOPC - Exam 3 Ch. 5
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2010-04-29 10:19:22
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SOPC - Exam 3 Ch. 5
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  1. Bar Graph (129)
    Graph, variables on the x-axis is measured on a nominal/ordinal scale; because the x-variable isn't continuous, the bars don't touch.
  2. Class Interval (128)
    Subset of a range of scores; in a grouped frequency distribution, the number of participants who fall into each class interval is shown.
  3. Cluster Sampling (119)
    Sampling procedure in which the researcher first samples groups/clusters of participants, then obtains participants from the selected clusters.
  4. Convenience Sample (124)
    A nonprobability sample of whatever participants are readily available.
  5. Cross-sectional survey design (110)
    Design in which a group of respondents is studied once.
  6. Demographic Research (114)
    Descriptive research that studies basic life events in a population, ex. patterns of births, marriages, deaths, & migrations.
  7. Descriptive Research (109)
    Describes in an accurate & systematic fashion the behavior, thoughts, or feelings of a group of participants.
  8. Economic Sample (116)
    provides a reasonable degree of accuracy at a reasonable cost in terms of money, time, & effort.
  9. Epidemiological Research (114)
    Studies the occurrence of disease in different groups of people
  10. Epsem Design (117)
    Sampling procedure in which all cases in the population have an equal probability of being chosen for the sample; (epsem stands for equal-probability selection method)
  11. Error of Estimation (116)
    The degree to which data from a sample is expected to deviate from the population as a while, (also called margin of error)
  12. Frequency (127)
    The number of participants who obtained a particular score
  13. Frequency Distribution (127)
    A table that shows the number of participants who obtained each possible score on a measure
  14. Frequency Polygon (129)
    A form of line graph.
  15. Graphical Method (127)
    Presenting and summarizing data in pictorial form, (graphs & pictures)
  16. Group Frequency Distribution (128)
    A table showing the number of participants who obtained each of a range of scores
  17. Histogram (128)
    A form of bar graph in which the variable on the x-axis is on a continuous scale
  18. Internet Survey (112)
    A survey in which respondents access & respond to research materials on the web
  19. Longitudinal Survey Design (112)
    A study in which a single group of participants is studied over time
  20. Margin of Error (116)
    The degree to which data obtained from a sample are expected to deviate from the population as a whole; also called Error of Estimation
  21. Mean (132)
    The mathematical average of a set of scores
  22. Measures of Central Tendency (132)
    Descriptive statistics that convey information about the average in a distribution; ex. mean, median, mode
  23. Measures of Variability (133)
    Descriptive statistics that convey information about the variability of a set of data; ex. range, variance, S.D.
  24. Median (133)
    The score that falls at the 50th percentile, middle score
  25. Mode (133)
    The most frequent score in a distribution
  26. Multistage Sampling (120)
    Cluster sampling in which large clusters of participants are sampled, followed by smaller clusters from within the larger clusters, followed by still smaller clusters, until participants are sampled from the small clusters
  27. Negatively Skewed Distribution (134)
    A distribution in which there are more high scores than low scores
  28. Nonprobability Sample (123)
    A sample selected in a way that the likelihood of any member of the population being chosen cannot be determined
  29. Nonresponse problem (121)
    The failure of individuals who are selected for a sample to agree to participate or answer all questions; nonresponse is a problem when probability samples are used in descriptive statistics
  30. Normal distribution (134)
    A distribution of scores that rises to a rounded peak in the center with symmetrical tails descending to the left & right of the center
  31. Numerical Method (127)
    Presenting & summarizing data in numerical form, ex. means, percentages, etc.
  32. Outlier (133)
    an extreme score; typically scores that fall farther than + or - 3 standard deviations from the mean
  33. Positively Skewed Distribution (134)
    A distribution in which there are more low scores than high scores
  34. Probability sample (117)
    A sample selected in a way that the likelihood of any individual in the population being selected can be specified
  35. Proportionate sampling method (119)
    A variation of stratified random sampling in which cases are selected from each stratum in proportion to their prevalence in the population
  36. Purposive Sample (124)
    A sample selected on the basis of the researcher's judgement regarding the "best" participants to select for research purposes
  37. Quota Sample (124)
    A sample selected to include specified proportions of certain kinds of participants
  38. Range (133)
    A measure of variability that is equal to the difference between the largest & smallest scores in a set of data
  39. Raw Data (127)
    The original data collected on a sample of participants before they are analyzed
  40. Relative Frequency (128)
    The proportion of participants who obtained a particular score
  41. Representative Sample (116)
    A sample from which one can draw accurate, unbiased estimates of the characteristics of a larger population
  42. Sample (115)
    A subset of a population; group selected to participate in a study
  43. Sampling (115)
    The process by which a sample is chosen from a population to participate in a study
  44. Sampling Error (116)
    The difference between scores obtained on a sample & the scores that would have been obtained if the entire population had been studied
  45. Sampling Frame (117)
    A list of the member of a population
  46. Simple Frequency Distribution (127)
    A table that indicates the number of participants who obtained each score
  47. Simple Random Sample (117)
    A sample selected in a way that every possible sample of the desired size had the same chance of being selected
  48. Standard Deviation (133)
    A measure of variability that is equal to the square root of the variance
  49. Stratified Random Sampling (119)
    A sampling procedure in which the population is divided into strata, then participants are sampled randomly from each stratum
  50. Stratum (119)
    A subset of a population that shares a certain characteristics; ex. a population could be divided into the strata of men & women
  51. Successive Independent Samples Survey Design (110)
    A design in which different samples of participants are studied at different points in time
  52. Table of Random Numbers (118)
    A table of numbers that occur in a random order used to select random samples or to assign participants in a random fashion
  53. Variance (133)
    A numerical index of the variability in a set of data
  54. Z-score (137)
    A statistic that expresses how much a particular participant's score varies from the mean in terms of standard deviations; also called standard score

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