The random motion of atoms and molecules is called.
Where in a human cell would you find DNA?
What types of molecules make up the cell membrane?
Phospholipids, proteins, cholesterol, and some carbohydrates
What kind of molecules can pass most easily through a cell membrane?
The spontaneous movement of substances from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration is called.
The process during cell reproduction by which the cell's nucleus divides is called.
True or False
Cells soaking in an isotomic solution will gain water and swell.
True or False
DNA replication occurs during prophase.
The basic unit of all living organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - The genetic materials in cells.
A class of lipid molecules that contain a phosphate group (PO4) termed the phospate head.
A form of transport in which a substance packaged in a vesicle is transported out of a cell. The membrane of the vesicle fuses with the cellular membrane, peels open, and expels the contents.
A cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and assorted other membrane-bound organelles.
A membrane that allows some substances to pass though but prevents others from doing so.
Movement of material that does not require additional energy.
Maintaining a relatively constant internal environment.
Nuclear division of reproductive cells (sperm and ova); Produces cells with only one chromosome from each pair.
A state of balance.
Mobile extensions on the outside surface of a cell that move in a wave-like manner to sweep materials over the cell's surface.
The form of RNA generated from DNA for the synthesis of a protein.
Messenger RNA also calles mRNA
The liquid portion of cytoplasm.
"False Feet". A temporary projection of the cell membrane and cytoplasm that extends out from the cell surface. In endocytosis these wrap around the material to be brought into the cell.
A model of the cellular membrane having a fluid phospholipid bilayer in which the moveable proteins and other structures are embeded.
Fluid Mosaic Model
A collection of membranous sacs where products madi in other areas are sent for final modification, packaging and distribution.
A stucture that holds a cell together and forms a physical partition to ceperate the cell's inside world from the outside, makin it easier to maintain constancy inside the cell. Also called the cell membrane.
Tiny fibrous, thread-like pieces within cells.
A covering found on cells that seperates their internal environment from the external environment.
Cell membrane (Plasma membrane)
Diffusion in which the moving molecules are assisted in their movements from higher concentration to lower concentration. This may involve carriers for the moving molucules and channels through which they can move.
In a solution, the substance in which the solute disolves.
Area of the cell concerned with production of the spindle associated with chromosome movement during cell reproduction.
The form of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) that transports amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into proteins.
Transfer RNA (also called tRNA)
The final stage of mitosis in which nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes, the chromosomes relax back into thread-like chromatin, and the nucleous reappears.
An organelle that produces energy (ATP) from food sources for cellular work.
A membrane-bound structure that houses a eukaryotic cell's DNA.
An environment in which there is a difference in the concentration of a substance between two areas.
A form of transport in which substances are taken into cells in vesicles from extensions of the cell membrane.
The membrane-bound vesicle containing material brought into the cell during pinocytosis.
The region within a prokaryote where the DNA is located.
The first stage of mitosis in which chromatin condenses and becomes visible as chromosomes. The nuclear membrane and nucleus disappear and the spindle begins to form.
Small membranous bags containing digestive enzymes to break down materials.
The membrane-bound vesicle containing the material brought into the cell during phagocytosis.
An extensive network of tubes within the cells where many different substances are synthesized, transported and stored. The rough portions contains ribosomes and thus synthesized proteins. The smooth portion makes other molecules.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A jelly-like substance similiar to cytoplasm, found in the nucleus.
The orientation fo the two layers fo phospholipids in the cell membrane in which the phosphate heads of the two layers face away from the membrane, producing hydrophilic regions on esch side of the membrane. The fatty acid tails of the two layers face toward each other, forming a hydrophobic central regions.
Series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it completes reproduction.
The period of the cell cycle during which the cell divides.
The study of cells.
A homogeneous mixture in which a solute is evenly distributed throughout a solute.
A cell that has no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
Spontaneous movement from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentrantion.
Endocytosis in which solids are moved into the cell.
A relaxed thread-like form of DNA, found during interphase, early prophase, and late telophase.
The process of duplicating the DNA of a cell in preparation for cellular reproduction. It occurs during interphase.
Paired cylindrical structures found in animal cells that are in the centrosome and direct movement of chromosomes during cell reproduction.
Opening found in the nuclear envelope that allow passage of substances into and out of the cell's nucleus.
Breaks down organic compounds, such as fatty acids, whose breakdown produces hydrogen peroxide.
Tiny tubes found within cells.
Endocytosis in which liquids are brought into the cell.
The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
A form of endocytosis in which the material to be brought into the cell first attaches to special receptors that recognize it on the surface of the cell.
With respect to cellular membranes, this is the interior region between the two phospholipid layers, which contain the fatty acids.
A small circular piece of DNA found in prokaryotes in addition to their regular DNA.
A long tail-like extension that propel the cell forward.
A phosphate group (PO4) making up part of a phospholipid.
A stucture within the nucleus that makes ribosomes.
The form of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) found in ribosomes.
Constant, random movement of particles caused by collisions among other contantly moving particles.
The process through which cells build proteins.
A fluid material found inside cells that contains many substances.
In a solution, the substance that gets "dissolved".
The state of mitosis following prophase in which the chromosomes align in pairs along the equator of the cell.
A stucture within a cell that carries out specific functions.
A group of conclusion arrived at from observations relating to the origin, function, and nature of cells.
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life.
3. Alll vital functions occur within cells.
4. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
5. Cells contain hereditary information that regulates their functions and is passed from generation to generation.
Structures composed of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and protein that carry out protein synthesis.
Nuclear division that produces two genetically identical nuclei.
An energy consuming process by which materials are moved against their concentration gradients.
A collection of microtubules and microfilaments that support cell components, anchor organelles and assist in cellular movement.
Composed of one cell.
An energy-rich molecule used to store cellular energy.
A double membrane forming the outside of the cell's nucleus.
A sac-like membrane structure enclosing substances.
With respect to the cellular membrane, this is the inner and outer surfaces of the phospholipid bilayer, which contain the phosphate head.
A molecule composed of mostly carbon and hydrogen attached to glycerol in a lipid.
Fatty acid tail
Composed of more that one cell.
Condensed form of chromatin (DNA) seen during cellular reproduction.
The period of the cell cycle from the time a cell is formed until it reproduces.
The stage in mitosis following metaphase in which the chromosome pairs seperate and are pulled by the spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.