A&P Cell Biology

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brianburke911
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130182
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A&P Cell Biology
Updated:
2012-01-24 02:51:19
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Cell Biology
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Cell Biology terms
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  1. What type of cell is bacteria?
    Prokaryotic cell
  2. What type of cell is anial cell?
    Eukaryotic cell
  3. Liquid between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
    Cytoplasm
  4. Organelle that makes proteins.
    Ribosome
  5. Make ATP.
    Mitochondrion
  6. Contains chemicals that break down materials.
    Lysome
  7. The random motion of atoms and molecules is called.
    Brownian Motion
  8. Where in a human cell would you find DNA?
    The nucleus
  9. What types of molecules make up the cell membrane?
    Phospholipids, proteins, cholesterol, and some carbohydrates
  10. What kind of molecules can pass most easily through a cell membrane?
    Lipids
  11. The spontaneous movement of substances from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration is called.
    Diffusion
  12. The process during cell reproduction by which the cell's nucleus divides is called.
    Mitosis
  13. True or False

    Cells soaking in an isotomic solution will gain water and swell.
    False
  14. True or False

    DNA replication occurs during prophase.
    False
  15. The basic unit of all living organisms.
    Cell
  16. Deoxyribonucleic Acid - The genetic materials in cells.
    DNA
  17. A class of lipid molecules that contain a phosphate group (PO4) termed the phospate head.
    Phospholipid
  18. A form of transport in which a substance packaged in a vesicle is transported out of a cell. The membrane of the vesicle fuses with the cellular membrane, peels open, and expels the contents.
    Exocytosis
  19. A cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and assorted other membrane-bound organelles.
    Eukaryote
  20. A membrane that allows some substances to pass though but prevents others from doing so.
    Selectively permeable
  21. Movement of material that does not require additional energy.
    Passive transport
  22. Maintaining a relatively constant internal environment.
    Homeostasis
  23. Nuclear division of reproductive cells (sperm and ova); Produces cells with only one chromosome from each pair.
    Meiosis
  24. A state of balance.
    Equilibrium
  25. Mobile extensions on the outside surface of a cell that move in a wave-like manner to sweep materials over the cell's surface.
    Cilia
  26. The form of RNA generated from DNA for the synthesis of a protein.
    Messenger RNA also calles mRNA
  27. The liquid portion of cytoplasm.
    Cytosol
  28. "False Feet". A temporary projection of the cell membrane and cytoplasm that extends out from the cell surface. In endocytosis these wrap around the material to be brought into the cell.
    Pseudopodia
  29. A model of the cellular membrane having a fluid phospholipid bilayer in which the moveable proteins and other structures are embeded.
    Fluid Mosaic Model
  30. A collection of membranous sacs where products madi in other areas are sent for final modification, packaging and distribution.
    Golgi apparatus
  31. A stucture that holds a cell together and forms a physical partition to ceperate the cell's inside world from the outside, makin it easier to maintain constancy inside the cell. Also called the cell membrane.
    Plasma membrane
  32. Tiny fibrous, thread-like pieces within cells.
    Microfiliment
  33. A covering found on cells that seperates their internal environment from the external environment.
    Cell membrane (Plasma membrane)
  34. Diffusion in which the moving molecules are assisted in their movements from higher concentration to lower concentration. This may involve carriers for the moving molucules and channels through which they can move.
    Facilitated diffusion
  35. In a solution, the substance in which the solute disolves.
    Solvent
  36. Area of the cell concerned with production of the spindle associated with chromosome movement during cell reproduction.
    Centrosome
  37. The form of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) that transports amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into proteins.
    Transfer RNA (also called tRNA)
  38. The final stage of mitosis in which nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes, the chromosomes relax back into thread-like chromatin, and the nucleous reappears.
    Telophase
  39. An organelle that produces energy (ATP) from food sources for cellular work.
    Mitochondrion
  40. A membrane-bound structure that houses a eukaryotic cell's DNA.
    Nucleus
  41. An environment in which there is a difference in the concentration of a substance between two areas.
    Concentration gradient
  42. A form of transport in which substances are taken into cells in vesicles from extensions of the cell membrane.
    Endocytosis
  43. The membrane-bound vesicle containing material brought into the cell during pinocytosis.
    Endosome
  44. The region within a prokaryote where the DNA is located.
    Nucleoid
  45. The first stage of mitosis in which chromatin condenses and becomes visible as chromosomes. The nuclear membrane and nucleus disappear and the spindle begins to form.
    Prophase
  46. Small membranous bags containing digestive enzymes to break down materials.
    Lysosome
  47. The membrane-bound vesicle containing the material brought into the cell during phagocytosis.
    Phagosome
  48. An extensive network of tubes within the cells where many different substances are synthesized, transported and stored. The rough portions contains ribosomes and thus synthesized proteins. The smooth portion makes other molecules.
    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  49. A jelly-like substance similiar to cytoplasm, found in the nucleus.
    Nucleoplasm
  50. The orientation fo the two layers fo phospholipids in the cell membrane in which the phosphate heads of the two layers face away from the membrane, producing hydrophilic regions on esch side of the membrane. The fatty acid tails of the two layers face toward each other, forming a hydrophobic central regions.
    Phospholipid bilayer
  51. Series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it completes reproduction.
    Cell cycle
  52. The period of the cell cycle during which the cell divides.
    Cell reproduction
  53. The study of cells.
    Cytology
  54. A homogeneous mixture in which a solute is evenly distributed throughout a solute.
    Solution
  55. A cell that has no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
    Prokaryote
  56. Spontaneous movement from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentrantion.
    Simple diffusion
  57. Endocytosis in which solids are moved into the cell.
    Phagocytosis
  58. A relaxed thread-like form of DNA, found during interphase, early prophase, and late telophase.
    Chromatin
  59. The process of duplicating the DNA of a cell in preparation for cellular reproduction. It occurs during interphase.
    DNA replication
  60. Paired cylindrical structures found in animal cells that are in the centrosome and direct movement of chromosomes during cell reproduction.
    Centriole
  61. Opening found in the nuclear envelope that allow passage of substances into and out of the cell's nucleus.
    Nuclear pore
  62. Breaks down organic compounds, such as fatty acids, whose breakdown produces hydrogen peroxide.
    Peroxisome
  63. Tiny tubes found within cells.
    Microtubule
  64. Endocytosis in which liquids are brought into the cell.
    Pinocytosis
  65. The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
    Osmosis
  66. A form of endocytosis in which the material to be brought into the cell first attaches to special receptors that recognize it on the surface of the cell.
    Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  67. "Water Fearing"
    Hydrophobic
  68. With respect to cellular membranes, this is the interior region between the two phospholipid layers, which contain the fatty acids.
    Hydrophobic
  69. A small circular piece of DNA found in prokaryotes in addition to their regular DNA.
    Plasmid
  70. A long tail-like extension that propel the cell forward.
    Flagellum
  71. A phosphate group (PO4) making up part of a phospholipid.
    Phosphate head
  72. A stucture within the nucleus that makes ribosomes.
    Nucleolus
  73. The form of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) found in ribosomes.
    Nucleolus
  74. Cytoplasmic division.
    Cytokinesis
  75. Constant, random movement of particles caused by collisions among other contantly moving particles.
    Brownian Motion
  76. The process through which cells build proteins.
    Protein synthesis
  77. A fluid material found inside cells that contains many substances.
    Cytoplasm
  78. In a solution, the substance that gets "dissolved".
    Solute
  79. The state of mitosis following prophase in which the chromosomes align in pairs along the equator of the cell.
    Metaphase
  80. A stucture within a cell that carries out specific functions.
    Organelle
  81. A group of conclusion arrived at from observations relating to the origin, function, and nature of cells.
    Cell Theory
  82. 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
    2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life.
    3. Alll vital functions occur within cells.
    4. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
    5. Cells contain hereditary information that regulates their functions and is passed from generation to generation.
    Cell Theory
  83. Structures composed of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and protein that carry out protein synthesis.
    Ribosome
  84. Nuclear division that produces two genetically identical nuclei.
    Mitosis
  85. An energy consuming process by which materials are moved against their concentration gradients.
    Active transport
  86. A collection of microtubules and microfilaments that support cell components, anchor organelles and assist in cellular movement.
    Cytoskeleton
  87. Composed of one cell.
    Unicellular
  88. Adenosine Triphosphate.
    ATP
  89. An energy-rich molecule used to store cellular energy.
    ATP
  90. A double membrane forming the outside of the cell's nucleus.
    Nuclear envelope
  91. A sac-like membrane structure enclosing substances.
    Vesicle
  92. "Water-Loving".
    Hydrophilic
  93. With respect to the cellular membrane, this is the inner and outer surfaces of the phospholipid bilayer, which contain the phosphate head.
    Hydrophilic
  94. A molecule composed of mostly carbon and hydrogen attached to glycerol in a lipid.
    Fatty acid tail
  95. Composed of more that one cell.
    Multicellular
  96. Condensed form of chromatin (DNA) seen during cellular reproduction.
    Chromosome
  97. The period of the cell cycle from the time a cell is formed until it reproduces.
    Interphase
  98. The stage in mitosis following metaphase in which the chromosome pairs seperate and are pulled by the spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.
    Anaphase.

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