Understanding the Immune responce

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Understanding the Immune responce
2012-01-25 13:02:51
Understanding Immune responce

Understanding the Immune responce
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  1. Immunity defined
    The ability of the body to fight infection and/or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells
  2. The Immune system
    is responsible for maintaining homeostasis by recognizing harmful from non harmful organisms and produces an appropriate response
  3. Antigens
    Toxins that pathogens produce that cause harm to an organism (cause the problem)

    protiens capable of stimulating an immune response
  4. human leukocyte antigens (HLA's)
    unique universal product code for each person

    present on the surface of nearly all body cells

    act as antigens only if they enter another person's body

    determne the tissue type of a person

    AKA: human transplantation antigens, human histocompatibility antigens, major histocompatibility antigens, and class I antigens
  5. Antibodies
    The body produces in responce to the problem

    Recognize antigens bind to and deactivate them
  6. Pathogens
    Viruses, bacteria or other living things that cause disease/immune responce
  7. Lymphatic Organs
    primarly responsable for immunity

    • Thymus gland (gets smaller with age)
    • Lymph nodes
    • lymph ducts
    • spleen
    • tonsils
  8. Primary line of defence are
    • blood-especially white blood cells (normal 5,000-10,000)
    • thymus gland produces T lymphocytes
    • bone marrow produces B lymphocytes
  9. Secondary line of defence
    • Peyer's patches located in the intestines
    • lymph nodes located in many places in the body
    • tonsils
    • spleen
  10. immunocompetent
    when all the different parts of the inflammation and immunity are working well
  11. Skin
    • The bodies first line of defense
    • Physical barrier:hard to penetrate
    • Chemical barrier: tears, sweat
  12. Purpose of inflammation and immunity
    nutralize, eliminate, or destroying organisms that invade the internal environment.

    use protective action against non-self proteins and cells

    Immune system cells can distinguish between the body's own cells and other, non-self protiens and cells
  13. Non-self protiens and cells include
    • infected body cells
    • cancer cells
    • all invading cells and organisms
  14. Self tolerance
    the ability to recognize self versus non-self, which is necessary to prevent invaders

    the immune system cells are the only body cells capable of determining self from non-self

    self tolerance is possible because of the different kinds of proteins present on cell membranes
  15. Parts of the immune system
    • Primary:
    • Blood- WBC mainly
    • thymus gland- produces T lymphocytes
    • Bone Marrow- produces B lymphocytes

    • Secondary:
    • Peyer's patches in the intestines
    • lymph nodes
    • tonsils
    • spleen
  16. Third line of defence
    • specific immune response
    • this is involves the creation of antibodies
  17. White blood cells (Leukocytes)
    protect the body from the effects of invasion by organisms

    provide protection through many defensive actions

    • - recognition of self versus non-self
    • - destruction of foreign invaders, cellular debris, and unhealthy or abnormal self cells
    • -production of antibodies directed against invaders
    • -complement activation
    • -production of cytokines that stimulate increased formation of leukocytes in bone marrow and increase specific leukocyte activity
  18. Three process needed for human protection through immunity are
    • inflammation
    • antibody-mediated immunity also known as humoral immunity
    • cell-mediated immunity
    • Immunocompetence requires the function and interaction of all three processes
  19. Inflammation
    • also called natural immunity
    • immediate protection against the effects of tissue injury and invading foreign protiens

    inflammatory protection is immediate but short-term against injury or invading organism. it does not provide true immunity on repeated exposure to the same organism

    inflammation is a
    nonspecific body defense to invasion or injury and can be started quickley by almost any event regardless of where it occure or what causes it

    if the inflammatory response is excessive tissue damage may result

    inflammatory response also starts both antibody-mediated and cell-mediated response

    • confusing issue about inflammation is that this process occurs in response to tissue injury as well as to invasion by organisms
  20. Infection
    infection is usually accompanied by inflammation

    however inflammation can occur without infection (sprains injuries to joints, myocardial infarction, sterile surgical incisions, blister formation)

    inflammation caused by infection (appendicitis, peritonitis, and viral hepatitis)

    inflammation does not always meant an infection is present
  21. Natural Killer cells
    Narural killer cells kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells by cell-to-cell contact

    antigen specific cytotoxic T cells
  22. Third line of defence
    involves the creation on antibodies
  23. Cellular immunity VS Antibody or Humoral immunity
    • Cellular immunity: carried out by T-Cells
    • infected cells are killed by cytotoxic T-Cells

    • Antibody or Humoral immunity: carried out by B-Cells
    • antibodies are produced and dumped into blood stream
    • antibodies bind to antigens and deactivate them
  24. Immune response explained on power point lecture 2
    1) antigen infects cells

    2) macrophage ingests antigen and displays portion on its surface

    3)helper T-cells recognizes antigen on the surface of the macrophage and becomes active

    4) active helper T-Cell activates cytotoxic T-Cells and B-Cells

    5) Cytotoxic T-Cells devide into Cytotoxic T-Cells and memory T-Cells

    6) active cytotoxic T-Cells kill infected cells

    7)At the same time B-Cells devide into Plasma cells and memory B-Cells

    8) Plasma cells produce antibodies that deactivate pathogen

    9) memory T and memory B cells remain in the body to speed up the response if the same antigen reappears

    10) supressor T-Cells stop the immune response when all antigens have been destroyed
  25. Protective protien system (Complement protiens)
    are activated when pathogens enter the body

    complement certain immune responses

    attract phagocytes

    form holes in bacteria

    interferon binds to receptors of non-infected cells causing them to prepare for possible attack
  26. Primary vs Secondary immune response
    Primary; response to an invader the first time the invader infects the body

    • no measurable immune response for the first few days
    • next 10-15 days antibody production grows steadily

    Secondary: a more rapid response to an invader the 2nd time it invades the body antibody production increases dramatically and in a much shorter time period