vaccines and antivirals

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vaccines and antivirals
2012-02-01 10:51:13

MS1/Mod5: virology vaccines
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  1. HAV
    killed inactivated
  2. HBV
    killed inactived subunit
  3. Flu A/B
    live and inactivated (both trivalent)
  4. Measles
    live (MMR)
  5. Mumps
    live (MMR)
  6. Poliovirus
    Inactivated (developing countries use live)
  7. rotovirus
  8. rabies
    killed inactivated
  9. rubella
    live (MMR)
  10. varicella
  11. yellow fever
    live (travelers)
  12. japanese encephalitis
    inactivated (travelers)
  13. rotavirus
    live (oral)
  14. papillomavirus
    recombinant (not live)
  15. adenovirus
    live (enteric capsule, special use)
  16. small pox
    live (special use)
  17. Amantadine
    • use as prophylaxis in IFA outbreak
    • most resistant
    • side effects: CNS changes
  18. Rimantadine
    • use as prophylaxis in IFA outbreak
    • no side effects
  19. Enfurvitide
    • blocks fusion of gp41 on HIV virion
    • side effects: site reactions since it is injectable
  20. Maraviroc
    blocks HIV to CCR5 at gp120
  21. Acyclovir
    • Herpes inhibitor
    • used for: HSV1/2 encephalitis, VZV in immunocompromised people
    • guanosine analog (viral TK monophosphorylates Acyclovir, which inhibits viral DNA pol after it is triphosphorylate)
    • chain termination
    • no effect on latency or recurrences
    • side effects: renal/CNS toxicity if given via IV
  22. Valocyclovir
    • ester of Acyclovir (converted to acyclovir)
    • benefits: increased serum levels, few side effects, reduces number of pills required because of increased serum levels
  23. Penciclovir
    • same mechanism as acyclovir
    • used for recurrent orolabial HSV-1
  24. Famciclovir
    • converted to penciclovir
    • used for HSV, VZV
  25. Ganciclovir
    • guanosine analog, activated via CMV phosphokinase (inhibits viral DNA pol after it is triphosphorylated, chain termination)
    • viruses become resistant in immunocompromised pts in long term rx (phosph mut or pt mut in viral DNA that does phosph)
    • Side effects: poor bioavailability, serious infections, IV induction, oral maintenance replaced by valganciclovir, *marrow suppression, renal excretion levels used
    • Used for: CMV, HSV retinitis
  26. Valgancyclovir
    • prodrug of gancyclovir
    • same side effects, very expensive
  27. Foscarnet
    • pyrophosphate analog (NOT NUCLEOSIDE ANALOG and DOES NOT REG TK)
    • blocks viral DNA pol via inhibition of removal of Pi from dNTP, inhibits HIV RT, inhib pyrophosphate exchange aka chain termination
    • Side effects: IV only, renal excretion, nephrotoxic, resistance
    • used for: HSV/CMV resistance to acyclovir/ganciclovir
  28. Cidovir
    • cytosine analog
    • made to triphosphate by CELL kinases (not viral as in other NI), inhib HIV RT, inhib pyrophosphate exchange (chain termination)
    • side effects: very nephrotoxic
    • used for: acyclovir/ganciclovir resistance to HSV/Pox
  29. Iododeoxyuridine
    • thymidine analog
    • phosph to triphosphate by CELL kinases and incorporated in DNA to make faulty viral and cell DNA progeny and mRNA
    • side effects: toxic systemically since incorporated in VIRAL AND CELL DNA
    • used for: topical keratoconjunctivitis of HSV
  30. Trifluorothymidine
    • thymidine analog
    • same uses as IDU
  31. Zanamivir
    • NA inhibitor, viral clumping
    • side effects: poor bioavailability, inhaled powder, bronchospasms
  32. Oseltamivir
    • NA inhibitor, viral clumping
    • Benefits: decreased viral shedding, sx, duration, sinusitis, bronchitis
    • side effects: nausea, vomiting
  33. Peramivir
    • NA inhibitor, viral clumping
    • *only given if not responding to anything else and IV mode is the only option for rx
  34. ZDZ, AZT
    • NRTI
    • side effects: bone marrow suppression
  35. DDI
    • NRTI
    • side effects: pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy
  36. DDC
    • NRTI
    • used for resistance to AZT
  37. Stavudine
    • NRTI
    • used for tolerance to other drugs, severe AIDS
    • side effects: neuropathy, lactic acidosis, dyslipidemia
  38. Lamivudine/Emtricitabine
    • NRTI
    • used for HIV and chronic HBV
    • well tolerated and very effective when combined with AZT
  39. Abacavir
    • NRTI, guanosine analog
    • side effects: hypersensitivity possible, cardiac problems
  40. Tenofovir
    • NRTI, acyclic nucleoside phosphonate, analog of AMP
    • side effects: nephrotoxicity, osteoporosis
  41. Zalcitabine
    • NRTI
    • side effects: neuropathy
  42. NNRTIs in general
    bind near AS of RT to cause a conformational change to inhibit viral DNA synthesis, quick resistance, rashes
  43. Nevirapine
    • NNRTI
    • used for: stevens-johnson, hepatitis
    • no cross-resistance
  44. Delavirdine
  45. Efavirenz
    • NNRTI
    • side effects: nightmares, CNS changes, depression
  46. Etavirine
  47. Rilpivirine
  48. Protease Inhibitors in general
    • bind to viral Pro (therefore no gag, pol, p24, rt made), rapid resistance
    • inhibits making more virions but no effect on provirals
    • side effects: buffalo hump, glucose intolerance
    • boost with Ritonavir: ritonavir increases concentration of PI by inhibiting CYP3A4 metab in gut/liver therefore increases half life of PI and decreases the amount of doses of PI required
  49. Saquinavir
  50. Ritonavir
  51. Indinavir
  52. Nelfinavir
  53. Fosamprenavir
  54. Tipranavir
  55. Lopinavir/ritonavir
  56. Atazanavir
  57. Darunavir
  58. Integrase inhibitors in general
    most active w/ few side effects; blocks viral DNA integrating into cellular DNA
  59. Raltegravir
    Integrase inhibitor
  60. Adefovir
    • HBV inhibitor
    • nucleoside analog of AMP, inhibits viral pol to decrease viral load
  61. Entecavi
    • HBV inhibitor
    • guanosine analog, most potent, decreases viral load
  62. Telbivudine
    • HBV inhibitor
    • thymidine analog, decreases viral load
  63. Tenofovir
    HBV inhibitor, decreases viral load
  64. Lamivudine, Emtricitabine
    • HBV inhibitor, cytidine analog
    • side effects: resistance, lots inflammatory reactions
  65. alpha IFN
    • HBV inhibitor
    • gives flu-like sx, not very effective
  66. NS3/4A serine proteases
    new form of HCV inhibition
  67. Telaprevir + bocavir + peg IFN + Rifampin
    new HCV inhibition
  68. INF
    HBC, HCV, HPV condylomatas (peg increases IFN half life)
  69. Fomivirsen
    • antisense DNA, inhibits viral protein synthesis
    • blocks CMV replication (retinitis)
  70. Methisazone
    inhibits viral protein synthesis of Pox via blocking translation of late mRNA
  71. Imiquimod
    • immunostimulant; stimulates release of alpha/beta INF from macrophages
    • used for genital warts