Card Set Information

2012-01-24 14:54:02

mod 2 pharm
Show Answers:

  1. optimal ldl cholesterol
    <100 mg/dl
  2. optimal total cholesterol
  3. optimal HDL cholesterol
    > 60 mg/dl
  4. optimal triglyerides
    <150 mg/dl
  5. Bile Acid Sequestrants
    Cholestyramine granules, colestipol, colesevelam
  6. mechanism of action of bile acid sequestrants
    binds bile acids in the liver which disrupts the recirculation stimulates the live to break down the cholesterol to bile acids, increase the update of LDL and then reduce the LDL concentration
  7. Are bile acid sequestrants systemically absorbed
  8. What are side effects of Bile Acid Sequestrants
    GI problems and a small tranient low percentage of patients saw an increase in triglycerides
  9. what are drug interactions wtih bile acid sequestrants
    they bind to other drugs and vitamens so patients need to take the medication at a seperate time from other medications
  10. bile acid sequestrants works on what type of cholesterol
    LDL only!

    it does not raise HGL or significantly change TG
  11. HMG-coA reductase inhibitors
    • statins
    • atorvastin, fluvavastin, pravastatin, simvastatin, rosuvastatin, pitavastatin
  12. how to HMG CoA reducatase inhibitors work
    HMG-CoA reductase is the enzyme that is responsible for voncerting HMG-CoA to mevalonate which is the early rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis.

    it works at the first rate limiting step to lower the production of cholesterol. works like a bottle neck, stop the production from the top
  13. what time of day should HMG-CoA reducatse inhibitors be taken at and why?
    should be taken at night because thats when the body produces most of the cholesterol
  14. side effects of HMG-CoA reducatse inhibitors
    increased LFTs and myopathy/myalagia/myositis/rhabdomyolysis (muscle aches and pains)

    the higher the dose the most likely that you are to experience the side effects
  15. drugs that cause muslcle aches
    niacin and HMG-CoA reducatse inhibitors
  16. mechanism of action of muscle aches
    generally unknown but believed to be a ubiquinone deficiency where the ubiquinone is replaced by coenzyme coq10
  17. myopathy
    general term related to any muscle complaint
  18. myalgia
    muscle complaints without elevation in creatine kinase
  19. myositis
    • muscle complaints with elevtion of creatine kinase
    • this is more severe because there is muscle inflammation
    • creatine kinase breaking down is a possible proble problem if it causes liver damage and breakdown
  20. rhabdomyolysis
    elevated levels of creatine kinase which are greater than ten times the upper limits of normal. also brown urine and urinary myoglobin-looks like there is blood in the urine
  21. statin interactions
    grapefruit juice-it inhibits the metabolism of the statin, thus more of it is left in the system than is supposed to. this can leave to overdosing as well as muscle achines and pains, breakdown adn renal failure
  22. nicotinic acid
  23. nicitinic acid mechanism of action
    reduces the production of VLDL in the liver- decreases the snthesis of LDL as well as decreases tri glycerides and increases HDL. it works by decreasing cholesterol biotransformation in the liver
  24. nicotinic acid dosing
    start by titrating a dose of immediate release adn then working up to sustained release. sustained release medications have a more likely side effect, such as hepatotoxicity however it is easier for the patient to take the medication once a day versus several times
  25. side effects of nicotinic acid
    cutaneous flushing for the skin from the neck up (cosmetically only), pruritis and liver dysfunction
  26. fibric acid derivitives
    gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, fenofibric acid
  27. fibric acid mechanism of action
    lowers triglycerides only
  28. side efects of fibric acid derivitives
    gall stones and cholecystitis