Genetics 4

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arian
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13027
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Genetics 4
Updated:
2010-04-04 12:04:07
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vocab
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Early genetics vocab
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  1. How traits are passed from one organism to offspring.
    Transmission Genetics
  2. Chemical structure of genes and factors of expression
    Molecular Genetics
  3. Genetic composition of groups of organisms.
    Population Genetics
  4. Unicellular, no organelles, circular chromosomes
    Prokaryotes
  5. Uni or multicellular, linear chromosomes, DNA wrapped around histones
    Eukaryotes
  6. One set of chromosomes
    Haploid
  7. Prokaryotes with histones
    Archaea
  8. Non-sex chromosomes
    Autosomes
  9. Body cells
    Somatic cells
  10. Pairs of chromosomes
    Homologs
  11. Alternate form of a gene
    Allele
  12. Location ofa gene
    Locus
  13. Contstriction in chromosome where kintechore proteins attach
    (1) in middle
    (2) off center
    (3) towards one end
    (4) At end
    • 1. Metacentric
    • 2. Submetacentric
    • 3. Acrocentric
    • 4. Telocentric
  14. All genetic material
    Genome
  15. All proteins encoded in a genome
    Proteom
  16. two stages of the cell cycle
    Interphase and Mitosis
  17. Times os each stage in teh cell cycle
    G1= 10 hrs, S phase = 9 hrs, G2=4 hrs, Mitosis = 1Hr
  18. Linker histone which helps further folding
    H1
  19. DNA is normally at 300nm which is?
    Radial loop domains or euchromatin
  20. At 700 nm DNA is referred to as?
    Heterochromatin
  21. Protein responsible for DNA compaction
    Condensin
  22. Responsible for metaphase chromosome
    Condensin
  23. Holds sister chromatids together
    Cohesin
  24. Microtubule organizing center which has centrioles inside
    Centrosome
  25. Protein which spindle fibers attatch to?
    Kinetochore protein
  26. Microtubules around the poles
    Astral microtubules
  27. Microtubules which attach to kinetochores
    Kinetochore microtubules
  28. Microtubules from one end to another
    Polar microtubules
  29. Breaks down cohesin
    Separase
  30. Binds to separase until ready for use
    Securin
  31. Stage at which nuclear membrane reforms and DNA decondenses?
    Telophase
  32. Thin thread stage of prohase
    Leptonema
  33. Stage at which crossing over occurs
    Pachytene
  34. Stage at which tetrads are visible (chiasmata visible)
    Diplonema
  35. Stage at which homolgous chromosomes pair
    zygotene
  36. Paired homologs
    Bivalent
  37. Causes homolog pairing
    Synaptonemal complex
  38. Stage before metaphase at which microtubules attach to kinetechores
    Diakinesis
  39. Orient the kinetochores for the two sister chomatids toward one pole
    Monopolins
  40. Separation of homologous chromosomes
    Anaphase 1
  41. Tell which stage each undergoes:
    1. Spermatogonia and Oogonia
    2. Primary spermatocytes and oocytes
    3. Secondary spermatocytes and oocytes
    4. Spermatids and ovum
    • 1. Mitosis
    • 2. Meiosis
    • 3. meiosis 11
    • 4. Maturation
  42. How many months until ovaries are fully formed?
    6 months
  43. What stage are oocytes in t birth?
    Diplotene
  44. At puberty what stage are oocytes in?
    Metaohase II
  45. Enzymes which transfer p from ATP to substrate
    Kinase
  46. Transcriptional regulator which promotes S Phase
    E2F
  47. Block transcriptional regulator
    Ribos
  48. Activates genes needed for the Sphase
    E2F activated Cyclin D-CDK4 & Cyclin E-CDK2
  49. Concentration of this is constant in the cell
    kinases
  50. Mitosis promoting factor
    Cyclin B-CDC2
  51. Activates the inactive MPF
    CDC25C phosphatase
  52. Removes a Phosphate
    Phosphatase
  53. Mechanism that halts progression until a critical process is complete or damage is repaired
    Checkpoints
  54. Senses DNA damage
    MDM2
  55. Slows processivity of DNA polymerase, blocks cyclin B, blocks CDC25C phosphatase, increases Bax
    p53
  56. Blocks G1 cyclin-CDKs and action of DNA polymerase
    p51
  57. Proteases which mediate apoptosis
    caspase
  58. Activates caspases
    Bax
  59. Inhibits caspases
    BCl2
  60. Lcation of Bax
    Mitochondria
  61. Involves a G-protein and changes to active form with GTP
    Ras-GTP
  62. Promotes regulated mitosis and inhibit apoptosis
    proto-oncogenes
  63. Dominant mutation that creates a new function for gene product or cause the wild-type product to be produced where or when it should not be
    Gain of function mutation
  64. Mutated proto-oncogenes
    Oncogenes
  65. Negatively regulates cell cycle and promotes apoptosis
    Tumor suppressor genes
  66. End of the chromosome
    a) Shorten by how much following cell division?
    b) After how many divisions does senescence occur?
    • Telomer
    • a) 200 nucleotides
    • b) 50 divisions
  67. Keeps telomeres long
    a) Found in what cell type?
    • Telomerase
    • a) germline cells
  68. The garden pea is referred to as?
    Pisum salivum
  69. The male part of a plant
    Stamen
  70. The female part of a plant
    Pistil
  71. Forms a seed
    Endosperm formed from ovum
  72. Forms a fruit
    Ovary

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