Card Set Information
Early genetics vocab
How traits are passed from one organism to offspring.
Chemical structure of genes and factors of expression
Genetic composition of groups of organisms.
Unicellular, no organelles, circular chromosomes
Uni or multicellular, linear chromosomes, DNA wrapped around histones
One set of chromosomes
Prokaryotes with histones
Pairs of chromosomes
Alternate form of a gene
Location ofa gene
Contstriction in chromosome where kintechore proteins attach
(1) in middle
(2) off center
(3) towards one end
(4) At end
All genetic material
All proteins encoded in a genome
two stages of the cell cycle
Interphase and Mitosis
Times os each stage in teh cell cycle
= 10 hrs,
phase = 9 hrs,
Linker histone which helps further folding
DNA is normally at 300nm which is?
Radial loop domains or euchromatin
At 700 nm DNA is referred to as?
Protein responsible for DNA compaction
Responsible for metaphase chromosome
Holds sister chromatids together
Microtubule organizing center which has centrioles inside
Protein which spindle fibers attatch to?
Microtubules around the poles
Microtubules which attach to kinetochores
Microtubules from one end to another
Breaks down cohesin
Binds to separase until ready for use
Stage at which nuclear membrane reforms and DNA decondenses?
Thin thread stage of prohase
Stage at which crossing over occurs
Stage at which tetrads are visible (chiasmata visible)
Stage at which homolgous chromosomes pair
Causes homolog pairing
Stage before metaphase at which microtubules attach to kinetechores
Orient the kinetochores for the two sister chomatids toward one pole
Separation of homologous chromosomes
Tell which stage each undergoes:
1. Spermatogonia and Oogonia
2. Primary spermatocytes and oocytes
3. Secondary spermatocytes and oocytes
4. Spermatids and ovum
3. meiosis 11
How many months until ovaries are fully formed?
What stage are oocytes in t birth?
At puberty what stage are oocytes in?
Enzymes which transfer p from ATP to substrate
Transcriptional regulator which promotes S Phase
Block transcriptional regulator
Activates genes needed for the Sphase
E2F activated Cyclin D-CDK4 & Cyclin E-CDK2
Concentration of this is constant in the cell
Mitosis promoting factor
Activates the inactive MPF
Removes a Phosphate
Mechanism that halts progression until a critical process is complete or damage is repaired
Senses DNA damage
Slows processivity of DNA polymerase, blocks cyclin B, blocks CDC25C phosphatase, increases Bax
Blocks G1 cyclin-CDKs and action of DNA polymerase
Proteases which mediate apoptosis
Lcation of Bax
Involves a G-protein and changes to active form with GTP
Promotes regulated mitosis and inhibit apoptosis
Dominant mutation that creates a new function for gene product or cause the wild-type product to be produced where or when it should not be
Gain of function mutation
Negatively regulates cell cycle and promotes apoptosis
Tumor suppressor genes
End of the chromosome
a) Shorten by how much following cell division?
b) After how many divisions does senescence occur?
a) 200 nucleotides
b) 50 divisions
Keeps telomeres long
a) Found in what cell type?
a) germline cells
The garden pea is referred to as?
The male part of a plant
The female part of a plant
Forms a seed
Endosperm formed from ovum
Forms a fruit