A&P Chapter 3 Cells

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A&P Chapter 3 Cells
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2012-01-24 16:22:13
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Cells Living Units
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Cellular Terminology
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  1. Membrane transport processes for which ATP is required. (Ex. solute pumping and endocytosis)
    Active (transport) processes
  2. Refers specifically to soulute pumping.
    Active (transport) pumping
  3. The flowing movement of the cytoplasm of a phagocyte.
    Amoeboid motion
  4. Third stage of mitosis, meiosis Iand meiosis II in which daughter chromosomes move toward each pole of a cell.
    Anaphase
  5. The three-base sequence complementary to the messenger RNA (mRNA) codon.
    Anticodon
  6. A cell withour a nucleus.
    Anucleate cell
  7. A process of controlled cellular suicide; eliminates cells that are unneeded, stressed, or aged.
    Apoptosis
  8. Transmembrane proteins that form water channels.
    Aquaporins
  9. Reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use.
    Atrophy
  10. Process of autodigestion (self-digestion) of cells, especially dead or degenerate cells.
    Autolysis
  11. An organelle structurally identical to a centriole and forming the base of a cilium or flagellum.
    Basal body
  12. A transmembrane protein that changes shape to envelpo and transport a polar substance across the cell membrane.
    Carrier
  13. Structural unit of all living things.
    Cell
  14. The development of specific and distinctive features in cells, from a single cell (the fertilized egg) to all the specialized cells of adulthood.
    Cell differentiation
  15. Series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it reproduces itself.
    Cell life cycle
  16. Membrane, composed of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins, that encloses cell contents; outer limiting cell membrane.
    Cell membrane (Plasma membrane)
  17. Minute body found near the nucleus of the cell; active in cell division.
    Centriole
  18. A region near the nucleus which contains paired organelles called centrioles.
    Centrosome (Cell center)
  19. A transmembrane protein that forms an aqueous pore, allowing substances to move from one side of the membrane to the other.
    Channel
  20. Structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors (genes).
    Chromatin
  21. Barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division.
    Chromosomes
  22. Tiny, hairlike projections of cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner.
    Cilia
  23. Any cavity or enclosed space serving as a resevoir.
    Cisternae
  24. The three-base sequence on a messenger RNA molecule that provides the genetic information used in protein synthesis; code for a given amino acid.
    Codon
  25. The difference in the concentration of a particular substacne between two different areas.
    Concentration gradient
  26. Intracellular second messenger that mediates the effects of the first (extracellular) messenger (hormone or neurotransmitter); formed from ATP by a plasma membrane enzyme (adenylate cyclase).
    Cyclic AMP
  27. The division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided.
    Cytokinesis
  28. The cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane.
    Cytoplasm
  29. Literally, cell skeleton. An elaborate series of rods running through the cystol, supporting cellular structures and providing the machinery to generate various cell movements.
    Cytoskeleton
  30. Viscous, semitransparent fluid substance of cytoplasm in which other elements are suspended.
    Cytosol
  31. Cell junction composed of thickened plasma membranes joined by filaments.
    Desmosome
  32. Diffusion of solute(s) through a semipermeable membrane.
    Dialysis
  33. The spreading of particles in a gas or solution with a movement toward uniform distribution of particles; driven by kinetic energy.
    Diffusion
  34. Process that occurs before cell division; ensures that all daughter cells have identical genes.
    DNA replication
  35. The combined difference in concentration and charge; influences the distribution and direction of diffusion of ions.
    Electochemical gradient
  36. Means by which fairly large extacellular molecules or particles enter cells. (Ex. phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis).
    Endocytosis
  37. Membranous network of tubular or sac-like channels in the cytoplasm of a cell.
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  38. Mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell interior to the extracellular space as a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane.
    Exocytosis
  39. Amino acid-specifying informational sequences (seperated by introns) in the genes of higher organisms.
    Exons
  40. Passive transport process used by certain molecules, (ex. glucose and other simple sugars) too large to pass through plasma membrane pores. Involves movement through channels or movement facilitated by a membrane carrier.
    Facilitated diffusion
  41. Passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter.
    Filtration
  42. Long, whiplike cellulat extension containing microtubules; propels sperm and some single-celled eukaryotes.
    Flagellum
  43. A depiction of the structure of the membranes of a cell as phospholipid bilayers in which proteins are dispersed.
    Fluid mosaic model
  44. Highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble the stucture of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
    Free radicals
  45. Protein that relays signals between extracellular first messengers (hormones and neurotransmitters) and intracellular second messengers (such as cyclic AMP) via effector enzyme.
    G protein
  46. A passageway between two adjacent cells; formed by transmembrane proteins called connexons.
    Gap junction
  47. One of the biological units of heredity located in chromatin; transmits hereditary information.
    Gene
  48. Refers to the rules by which the base sequence of a DNA gene is translated into protein structures (amino acid sequences).
    Genetic code
  49. A layer of externally facing glycoproteins on a cell's plasma membrane that determines blood type; involved in the cellular interactions of fertilization, embryonic development, and immunity, and acts as an adhesive between cells.
    Glycocalyx (cell coat)
  50. A lipid with one or more covalently attached sugars.
    Glycolipid
  51. Membranous system close to the cell nucleus that packages protein secretions for export, packages enzymes into lysomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes.
    Golgi apparatus
  52. Refers to molecules, or portions of molecules, that interact with water and charged particles.
    Hydrophilic
  53. Refers to molecules, or portions of molecules, that interact with nonpolar molecules.
    Hydrophobic
  54. Accelerated growth (Ex. in anemia) the bone marrow produces red blood cells at a faster rate.
    Hyperplasia
  55. Excessive, above normal, tone or tension.
    Hypertonic
  56. A solution that has a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes that the reference cell; having greater osmotic pressure than the reference solution (blood plasma or interstitial fluid).
    Hypertonic solution
  57. Increase in size of a tissue or organ independent of the body's general growth.
    Hypertrophy
  58. Below normal tone or tension.
    Hypotonic
  59. A solution that is more dilute (containing fewer nonpenetrating solutes) than the reference cell. Cells placed in hypotonic solutions plump up rapidly as water rushes into them.
    Hypotonic solution
  60. One of two major periods in the cell life cycle; includes the perios from cell formation to cell division.
    Interphase
  61. Fluid between the cells.
    Interstitial fluid (IF)
  62. Fluid within a cell.
    Intracellular fluid (ICF)
  63. Noncoding segment or portion of DNA that ranges from 60 to 100,000 nucleotides long.
    Intron
  64. A solution with a concentration of nonpenetrating solutes equal to that found in the reference cell.
    Isotonic solution
  65. Signaling chemicals that bind specifically to membrane receptors.
    Ligands
  66. Organelles that originate from the Golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes.
    Lysomes
  67. Voltage across the plasma membrane.
    Membrane potential
  68. A large, diverse group of integral proteins and glycoproteins that serve as binding sites for signaling molecules.
    Membrane receptors
  69. Long nucleotide strands that reflect the exact nucleotide sequences of genetically active DNA and carry the message of the latter.
    Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  70. Second stage of mitosis.
    Metaphase
  71. Thin strands of the contractile protein actin.
    Microfilaments
  72. One of three types of rods in the cytoskeleton of a cell; hollow tubes made of spherical protein that determine tha cell shape as well as the distribution of cellular organelles.
    Microtubules
  73. Tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increas surface area for absorption.
    Microvilli
  74. Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities.
    Mitochondria
  75. Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telpphase.
    Mitosis
  76. One of two major periods in the cell life cycle; involves the division of the nucleus (mitosis) and the division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis).
    Mitotic (M) phase
  77. Cell with more than one nucleus (Ex. skeletal muscle, cells, osteoclasts).
    Multinucleate cell
  78. Death or disintegration of a cell or tissues caused by disease or injury.
    Necrosis
  79. The double membrane barrier of a cell nucleus.
    Nuclear envelope
  80. Dense spherical bodies in the cell nucleus involved with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
    Nucleoli
  81. Fundamental unit of chromatin; consists of a strand of DNA wound around a cluster of eight histone proteins.
    Nucleosome
  82. Control center of a cell; contains genetic material.
    Nucleus
  83. Clusters of nerve cell bodies in the CNS.
    Nucleus
  84. Small cellular structures (ribosomes, mitochondria, and others) that perform specific metabolic function for the cell as a whole.
    Organelles
  85. The number of solute particles present in 1 liter of a solution.
    Osmolarity
  86. Diffusion of a solvent through a mambrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one.
    Osmosis
  87. A measure of the tendency of water to move into a more concentrated solution.
    Osmotic pressure
  88. Membrane transport processes that do not require cellular energy (ATP), (Ex. diffusion), which is driven by kinetic energy.
    Passive (transport) processes
  89. Progressive, wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube organs (or that move other substances through other hollow body organs).
    Peristalsis

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