Endo 2- Phermones

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  1. Up-regulation of receptors
    • increase of number of receptors for the particular hormone
    • this result depends on the physiologic effects of the hormones at the targer tissue
  2. Down-regulation of receptors
    • decrease number of receptors on the target cells
    • results in desensitization effects of the hormone
    • may occur due to long term exposure of high levels of the hormone
  3. Pheromone
    an externally secreted agent which is released into the environment to integrate behavior in members of the same species
  4. In humans, phermones are mediated by the...
    VNO, Vomeronasal Organ
  5. Differences beween hormones and pheromones
    • hormones act within individuals... pheromones producted by one to attract opposite sex
    • hormones are endocrine (ductless)... pheromones are exocrine (ducts)
    • hormones released inside... pheromones are released outside
    • hormones are less species specific... pheromones are more species specific
  6. Similarties between hormones and pheromones
    • exocrine and endocrine hormones
    • hormones are metabolized to pheromones
  7. Releasers
    • one release and other benefits
    • quick response
    • ex: female rodents have footpads that produce odor which causes aggressive behavior in males
  8. Primers
    • delayed response
    • many endocrine glands involved
    • ex: honeybee queen gives decanoic acid which can alter alter ovaries of female workers
  9. Allomers
    • chemical signals favor the emitters but do not benefit the receivers
    • ex: female deer can give signal to male which creates attraction
    • ex: skunks give off strong odor for repulsion
  10. Kairomers
    • release a specific compound which benefits an individual of another species which receives it, without benefitting the emitter
    • ex: lions territoy --> lets other animals know
    • ex: female mosquitoes are attracted by L-Lactate in human sweat
  11. chemistry of pheromones
    • most of the compounds have low molecular weight
    • volatile
    • rate of diffusion
    • derivatives of carbon molecule
  12. Examples of pheromones
    • androstenone and androstenol in male human sweat
    • dormitory effect --> menstrual synchrony
    • trained perfumers --> different skin and hair types
    • schizophrenics --> trans-3-methly-hexanoic acid
    • some odors are related to sexual stimulus --> licorice, doughnuts, pumpkin pie
  13. Bruce Effect
    • 1. smell of urine from strange rat
    • 2. went through the nasal chamber of the female rat to their olfactory lobe
    • 3. signal transmitter to cerebellum and amplified signal was transmitted to hypothalamus which decreases the production of GnRH
    • 4. the decreased level of GnRH decreases the level of gonadotropin (prolatin, which acts as gonadotropin in rats only)
    • 5. decreased level of gonadotropin produces decreased level of progesterone from the ovaries
    • 6. due to the decreased level of progesterone, the uterus can't develop which results in abortion
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Endo 2- Phermones
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