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Aristotle's 3 types souls or psychs?
vegetative, sensitive, rational
Overcoming inconsistencies by comparing sources of "authoritative" knowledge?
Given immediately immediately in experience
Incapable of further doubt
Descarte's 1st Principle
Innate Ideas - ability to reason is inborn, some knowledge does not rely on sense expereince
Examples: extension, movement, God, perfection, inifinity, geometrical axioms
Concepts resulting from our expericne in the world
Idea body possesses properties of both extension & movement
- body/mind are different substances governed by different laws
- animals don't possess a soul, governed by mechanical processes like bodies
- humans do posses a soul
Descartes proposed nerves had filaments in them that could transmit vibrations in sense organs to brain.. 2 types, (reflexes) they are?
Descartes' dualism is _ cause he suggested the mind could _ & _ action through the pineal gland
- intervene & direct
Why the pineal gland?
Descartes thought this was where mind and body _ each other
All of our knowledge of the world is constructed from our experiences in it
Applied to, philosophy of mind, ideal structure of gov., visual perception, physiology, education, subjagation of women
Who was the original empiricist?
John Locke - 1632
Descartes said some ideas were derived purely from reason, did John Locke disagree?
“Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void
of all characters, without any ideas; how comes it to be
furnished?...To this I answer, in one word, from experience;
in that, all knowledge is founded, and from that it ultimately
Who said this?
What are 2 sources of ideas?
Sensation: everything we take in from our environment
Reflection: mental activity involved in processing the info from our senses and memory
What are 2 kinds of ideas?
Simple: result fom experienceing basic sensory qualities and making simple reflections
Complex: idea including severl others, can be combo of simple and/or complex ideas
What are 2 qualities of matter?
Primary: Exist as an inherent property of an object
Secondary: Not inherent attributes, but depend on perceptual experience of the observer
Who is George Berkely?
- Irish Anglican Bishop
- Argued various perceptions, size, distance, location of objects, depend entirely on experience
Retinal images are inverted, yet we see objects as right side up.. Berkely argued that this..
..was not because our brains simply make a correction, but was due to our experience in the world
We learn to relate what we see (object) with what we experince using our other senses, like touch & movement
What was Berkely's attack on materialism?
argued we don't see any material objects direclty they are all judged on the basis of our perception
Who is David Hume?
Scottish writer and philosopher
aimed to introduce the experimental method of reasoning into discussions of human nature
Who did David Hume agree with?
Locke and Berkeley
believed all human understanding was based in expereince and with the experimental method he tried to uncover the minds basic elements
David Hume suggested the mind consisted of 2 basic elements, they are?
Impressions - basic sensations, raw data of experience
Ideas - faint copies of impressions, all ideas, even complex can be reduced to impressions
What are David Humes 3 laws of association?
-considered to be major achievement of his Treatise
- Cause and Effect