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  1. Aristotle's 3 types souls or psychs?
    vegetative, sensitive, rational
  2. Overcoming inconsistencies by comparing sources of "authoritative" knowledge?
    dialectical method
  3. Given immediately immediately in experience
    clear ideas
  4. Incapable of further doubt
    distinct ideas
  5. Descarte's 1st Principle
    Innate Ideas - ability to reason is inborn, some knowledge does not rely on sense expereince

    Examples: extension, movement, God, perfection, inifinity, geometrical axioms
  6. Concepts resulting from our expericne in the world
    derived ideas
  7. Idea body possesses properties of both extension & movement

    - body/mind are different substances governed by different laws
    - animals don't possess a soul, governed by mechanical processes like bodies
    - humans do posses a soul
  8. Descartes proposed nerves had filaments in them that could transmit vibrations in sense organs to brain.. 2 types, (reflexes) they are?
    • Automatic
    • Learned
  9. Descartes' dualism is _ cause he suggested the mind could _ & _ action through the pineal gland
    • interactive,
    • intervene & direct
  10. Why the pineal gland?
    Descartes thought this was where mind and body _ each other
  11. All of our knowledge of the world is constructed from our experiences in it

    Applied to, philosophy of mind, ideal structure of gov., visual perception, physiology, education, subjagation of women
  12. Who was the original empiricist?
    John Locke - 1632
  13. Descartes said some ideas were derived purely from reason, did John Locke disagree?
  14. “Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void
    of all characters, without any ideas; how comes it to be
    furnished?...To this I answer, in one word, from experience;
    in that, all knowledge is founded, and from that it ultimately
    derives itself”
    Who said this?
    John Locke
  15. What are 2 sources of ideas?
    Sensation: everything we take in from our environment

    Reflection: mental activity involved in processing the info from our senses and memory
  16. What are 2 kinds of ideas?
    Simple: result fom experienceing basic sensory qualities and making simple reflections

    Complex: idea including severl others, can be combo of simple and/or complex ideas
  17. What are 2 qualities of matter?
    Primary: Exist as an inherent property of an object

    Secondary: Not inherent attributes, but depend on perceptual experience of the observer
  18. Who is George Berkely?
    • Irish Anglican Bishop
    • Argued various perceptions, size, distance, location of objects, depend entirely on experience
  19. Retinal images are inverted, yet we see objects as right side up.. Berkely argued that this..
    ..was not because our brains simply make a correction, but was due to our experience in the world

    We learn to relate what we see (object) with what we experince using our other senses, like touch & movement
  20. What was Berkely's attack on materialism?
    -subjective idealism

    argued we don't see any material objects direclty they are all judged on the basis of our perception
  21. Who is David Hume?
    Scottish writer and philosopher

    aimed to introduce the experimental method of reasoning into discussions of human nature
  22. Who did David Hume agree with?
    Locke and Berkeley

    believed all human understanding was based in expereince and with the experimental method he tried to uncover the minds basic elements
  23. David Hume suggested the mind consisted of 2 basic elements, they are?
    Impressions - basic sensations, raw data of experience

    Ideas - faint copies of impressions, all ideas, even complex can be reduced to impressions
  24. What are David Humes 3 laws of association?

    -considered to be major achievement of his Treatise
    • Resemblence
    • Contiguity
    • Cause and Effect
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