Audiology quiz 1

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  1. What is the fastest growing work setting for audiologists?
    private practice
  2. Where are most audiologists currently employed?
  3. What are negative consequences of living with hearing loss?
    • lags in education
    • reduced quality of life
    • economic burdens
  4. What does the prevalence rate of hearing loss increase with?
    increasing age
  5. What is the prevalence of hearing loss amoung adults over the age of 18?
    35 million adults in the USA
  6. What causes higher costs over a lifetime?
    • the earlier the hearing loss is diagnosed
    • $1,000,000 when diagnosed between birth and age 2
  7. Who was a prominent speech pathologist who called for workers in the field of speech pathology to include the problems of those who could not hear speech?
    robert west
  8. Robert west felt it was important to help the individual...
    to "hear what he ought to hear"
  9. What does the term audiology mean?
    the science of hearing
  10. Who coined the term audiology?
    independently by both Norton Canfield (an otologist) and Raymond Carhart (a speech pathologist)
  11. What is Raymond Carhart known as?
    the "father of audiology"
  12. Carhart and Canfield both planned and implemented programs in specialized aural rehabilitation hospitals established for...
    military personnel during WWII
  13. What does AAA stand for?
    • the american academy of audiology
    • it is considered to be the first true "home" of audiology
  14. What do doctoral degrees include?
    • the research oriented Ph.D.
    • the clinically oriented Au.D.
  15. When did the Au.D. come into existence?
    • 1993
    • it is the newest professional doctorate
  16. What is the percentage of adults who need hearing aids and actually purchase one?
  17. When did the field of audiology evolve?
    during WWII
  18. What are the subspecialties of audiology?
    pediatric, medical, rehabilitative, industrial, and educational
  19. Evidence supports the existence of what for the development of a child's first language?
    a critical period
  20. How many words should a child know by the age of 5-7 years?
    50-100 to have an opportunity to subsequently develop typical speech and language skills
  21. What are two key components of language?
    the lexicon and syntax
  22. What is lexicon?
    • mental dictionary
    • matches sound sequences to objects or actions
  23. What is syntax?
    • grammar
    • contains the rules by which words are sequenced in a language to form meaningful phrases and sentences
  24. What percentage of the Deaf children born in the US have both parents with normal hearing and auditory-oral communication?
    • 90%
    • this is why the default intervention should be restoration of hearing and reliance on auditory-oral communication rather than a reliance on maunal communication
  25. What grade level does the average graduate of high school from a state school for the Deaf have an equivalent of?
    • 8th grade education
    • average reading level is at the 4th grade level
  26. What may communication between sender and receiver make use of?
    the auditory-oral means or exclusively visual stimuli
  27. What has ASL been demonstrated to be?
    a rich language capable of supporting the highest levels of abstract mind-to-mind communication
  28. What must happen for ASL communication to take place?
    the sender and receiver must both be fluent in the language
  29. By what age should a child have produced "first word"?
    1 year
  30. What typical speech and language development milestone should a child have reached by the age of 2 years?
    40 word expressive vocabulary, 50 word receptive vocabulary, and 2 word phrases
  31. What typical speech and language development milestones should a child have reached by the age of 4 years?
    expressive vocabulary of 200 words, receptive vocabulary of 400 words, uses grammatically correct sentences, 95% of speech is adult-like and understood by others
  32. What is an amplitude spectrum?
    a plot of amplitude as a function of frequency
  33. What does a speech spectrogram look at?
    amplitude variations in the time and frequency domains simultaneously
  34. What does a waveform look at?
    amplitude variations over time
  35. What can the amplitude of a sound wave be expressed as?
    • peak amplitude
    • peak-to-peak amplitude
    • root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude
  36. What formula is used to calculate frequency given the period?
    • f = 1/T
    • period and frequency have a reciprocal relationship
  37. What is the frequency if the period is .05?
    • f = 1/.05
    • f = 20 Hz
  38. How often do periodic sounds occur?
    regularly every T seconds
  39. How often do aperiodic sounds occur?
    not every T seconds (they are irregular)
  40. What are acoustic signals that are aperiodic?
    • noise and white noise
    • some speech sounds in english are aperiodic noises (air forced through the vocal cords)
  41. What is propagation?
    any of the ways waves travel through a medium
  42. What is rarefaction?
    air molecules are moved farther apart by the travelling sound wave; reduction of a medium's density; opposite of compression
  43. What is compression (condensation)?
    air molecules are packed more closely together by the travelling sound wave; increasing of the medium's density; opposite of rarefaction
  44. What is elasticity?
    the property of air molecules that opposes the displacement of the air molecules; think of the spring in the mass-spring system
  45. What is the fundamental?
    the harmonic component of a complex sound wave that has the lowest frequency and commonly the greatest amplitude
  46. What is the fundamental frequency?
    the component of a complex sound wave with the lowest frequency
  47. What does the fundamental frequency of a speech sound correlate with?
    the pitch of the speaker's voice
  48. What are harmonics?
    integer multiples of the fundamental frequency
  49. If the fundamental frequency is 200 Hz and the second harmonic is 400 Hz what is the third harmonic?
    600 Hz
  50. If the fourth harmonic is 800 Hz, what is the fundamental frequency?
    800/4 = 200 Hz
  51. What is an octave?
    • a doubling of frequency
    • in audiology thresholds are usually obtained at the octaves 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, 4000 Hz, and 8000 Hz
  52. How do wavelength and frequency affect each other?
    • shorter wavelength = higher frequency
    • longer wavelength = lower frequency
  53. What is the difference between a system with higher mass and lower mass?
    • higher mass = lower frequency
    • lower mass = higher frequency
  54. What does the frequency of a sine wave equal?
    • the number of vibrations completed in 1 second
    • measured in Hz
  55. What is phase?
    the starting position of the pendulum or mass; or the phase relationship between two pendulums or masses
  56. What is period?
    the time it takes to complete one cycle of vibration (T); the time it takes the pendulum to move from one point and return to the same point
  57. What are the two requirements for a sound wave?
    a source of vibration and a medium
  58. What is the sound level of normal conversational speech?
    60 dB SPL
  59. What is intensity?
    loudness, amplitude
  60. What is intensity measured in?
  61. What is frequency measured in?
    Hz (1 cycle per second or cps = 1 Hz)
  62. What can all vibration including sinusoidal vibration be described in terms of?
    frequency, phase, and amplitude
  63. What is the unit of sound pressure?
    the pascal (Pa)
  64. What does doubling the distance from the sound source result in?
    • halving the sound pressure (which results in 1/4 the acoustic intensity since I is directly proportional to p squared)
    • this results in reducing the sound reaching the receiver by about 6 dB SPL (-6 dB)
  65. What is impedance?
    the net opposition to vibration resulting from the mass, elasticity, and resistance of the system
  66. What is admittance?
    the reciprocal of impedance and indicates how easily energy is "admitted" through a system rather than "impeded" by it
  67. Admittance and impedance are alternative, but equivalent ways of describing...?
    the flow of energy through a system
  68. If the fundamental frequency is 500 Hz, what is the 4th harmonic?
    • 2000 Hz
    • 500 x 4
  69. If the 6th harmonic is 1200 Hz, what is the fundamental frequency?
    • 200 Hz
    • 1200/6
  70. Which frequency is an octave above 4000 Hz?
    • 8000 Hz
    • 4000 x 2
  71. If the period is .01 seconds, what is the frequency of that vibration?
    • 100 Hz
    • 1/.01
Card Set:
Audiology quiz 1
2012-01-24 23:57:24

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