Psyc Exam 1

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Psyc Exam 1
2012-01-24 21:59:34
Psyc Exam

Modules 1-3
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  1. What is Psycology?
    A science that studies behavior and the psychological and menntal process associated with behavior.
  2. Behavioral Neuroscience
    How the brain and nervouse system- but other biological processes as well- determine behavior
  3. Experimental Pyscology
    • studies the process of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world
    • (experimental "techniques")
  4. Cognitive Psycology
    focuses on higher mental process, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language
  5. Developmental Psycology
    studies how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death
  6. Social Psycology
    • study of how peoples thoughts, feeling, and actions are changed by others
    • (human aggression, liiking and loving, persuasion, and conformity)
  7. Health Psycology
    explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical aliments or disease
  8. Clinical Psychology
    deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of phychological disorders
  9. Counseling Psychology
    focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems
  10. The roots of psycology are in philosophy
    pyschology is traced back the Ancient Greece (Plato)
  11. Why is the year 1879 important
    Wilhem Wundt developed the firt psyc lab
  12. What is Structuralism?
    focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental compnents of perception, consciousness, thinking, emotions, and other kinds of mental states and activities
  13. Who is Wilhem Wundt
    first to call himself a psychologist.
  14. Introspection
    procedure used to present people with a stimulus (a bright green object) and ask them to describe it in their own words and in as much detail as they could
  15. Neuroscience/ Biological
    • consider how how people and non humans function biologically (bran/ genes-heredity) studies evolution and behavior of neuroscience
    • * blood/sweat/fears
  16. Psychodynamic
    • Sigmund Freud: understanding the inner person
    • *behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control.
  17. Behavioral Perspective
    • John B Watson and B.F. Skinner: observing the other person
    • *focused on observable behavior that be measured objectively
  18. Humanistic
    Carl Rodgers and Maslow: contends that people can control their behavior and that they naturally try to reach their full potential
  19. Sociocultural
    • both social and cultural context of behavior
    • -behavior evolves in s ociohistorical context (shaped/ cultural heritage: influenced by enviornment
  20. Nature vs. Nurture
    • gense vs. enviornment
    • genetically determind vs. enviornmentally determind
  21. Conscious vs. Unconscious
    awareness of behavior/sourse vs. unaware of behavior/sourse
  22. Observable vs. Inner Processes
    behavior that can be seen/ documented/ meassured vs. processess that must be meassured indirectly (someone solving math)
  23. Determinism vs. Free Will
    behavior is determind by genes/enviornmet vs. behavior is chosen by individual
  24. Individual Differences vs. Universal Principles
    Behavior is widely variable from person to person (or animal) vs. the same general principles apply to everyone
  25. What is the scieentific method?
    an approch use by psychologist to systematically acqure knowledge and understanding, behavior and other phenomena of interest
  26. Steps of scientific method
    • 1. Identify questions of answers
    • 2. Formulate hypothesis with explination
    • 3. Carry out research designed to support the hypothesis and explination
    • 4. communicate the finding
  27. What is a theory?
    a broad explination & prediction
  28. What is a hypothesis?
    • a prediction based upon the theory
    • *relationship between 2+ variable; what should happen under certain circumstances
  29. Operational Definition
    • translation of hypothesis into specific testable procesdures that can be measured and observed
    • *how many inches tall a person is
  30. Archival Research
    historical: existing data (economic data/ marriage license)
  31. Case Study
    an in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or samll group of people (rare occurnace)
  32. Naturalistic Observation/Ethnography
    collecting data that occures in its natural setting
  33. Survey Research
    asked a multitude of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitude (norms are gathered)
  34. Variables
    what are being measured/collected (behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change or vary in some way)
  35. Correlation Coefficient
    -1 to 1
  36. Can correlation be used to show causation?
    No but some relation is present
  37. Experimental Manipulation
    purposely chnaging a variable to observe an outcome
  38. Treatment
    manipulation implemented by the experimenter
  39. Experimental and Control Groups
    • experimetal: receives treatment
    • control: receives no treatment
  40. Independent Variable (IV)
    the variable that is manipulated by an experimenter
  41. Dependent Variable (DV)
    • what is measured
    • *expected to change as a result of the IV
  42. Random Selection
    each member of a population has a equal chance in being in the study
  43. Random Assignment
    participants are assigned to different experimental groups or "conditions" on the basis of chance
  44. Significant Outcome
    using statistical analysis research can determine whether a numeric difference is a real differences or is due mearly to chance (does not imply importance)
  45. Replication
    repeating experiment