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Factors influencing development
- 1. genetic code
- 2. quality of sperm and ovum
- 3. adequacy of intrauterine environment
- 4. teratogens
genetic risk factor: cystic fibrosis
european, white and Ashkenazi Jewish
have the greatest number of genetic risk factors due to inbreading.
composes what is inside; a persons genetic makeup
composes what is outside; how genes are outwardly expressed.
genetic risk factor: Tay-Sachs disease
Ashkenazi Jewish, French-Canadian and Cajun
Genetic risk factor: Sickle cell ds/trait
Genetic risk factor: Thalassemia
African, Mediterranean and Asian
Conditions that prompt prenatal genetic counseling:
chromosomal disorders, deafness, heart defects, neural tube defects, genetic disorders, clotting disorders, developmental delay/mental retardation.......
Amniotic fluid: Polyhydramnios
- Def: too much amniotic fluid; more than 2L at term.
- Cause: imbalance of h2o exchange b/t mother, fetus and amniotic fluid
- (Common in diabetic women)
- Indicates: chromosomal disorders, GI disorder, Neuro tube defects, or cardiac defects.
Amniotic fluid: Oligohydramnios
Def: too little fluid; less than 500mL at term or 50% expected amount at any gestational age.
Indicates: kidney disorder, placental insufficency
Maternal portion of placenta
Decidua; attaches to the uteran wall.
Fetal portion of the placenta
chorionic villi; fetal surface is covered by amnion
2 arterties that carry deoxygenated blood away form fetal body.
1 vein that carries oxygenated blood to fetal heart.
nutrition, excretion, fetal respiration (gas exchange), and production of hormones.
Maternal blood flow/Vascular arrangement of the placenta
maternal blood flows through the uterine arteries to intervillous spaces of the placenta and returns through the uterine veins to maternal circulation
Fetal blood flow/Vascular arrangement of placenta
Fetal blood flows through the umbilical arteries into the villous capillaries of the placenta and returns through the umbilical vein to the fetal circulation
Fetal blood flow
veins carry blood to heart
arteries carry blood away
Most oxygenated blood is in the umbilical vein
Fetal Development: week 4
heart begins to beat
Fetal Development: week 6
liver produces blood cells
heart begins circulating blood
Fetal Development: week 8
all body organs are formed
embryo is now designated as a fetus
Fetal Development: week 12
- genitals are well differentiated
- urine is produced
- fetal heart can be heard via doppler ultrasound
Fetal Development: week 16
active movements are present
baby's sex can be determined
Fetal Development: week 20
subcutaneous brown fat appears
fetal movement felt by mother (quickening)
Fetal Development: week 24
alveoli beginning to form
weighs 780 grams
respiratory movements begin
Fetal Development: week 28
brain develops rapidly
nervous system begins to regulate
lungs can provide gas exchange
surfactant begins to form
Fetal Development: week 32
bones fully developed
Fetal Development: week 36
increase in subcutaneous fat
lanugo begins to disappear
Fetal Development: week 38
head bigger than chest
gets antibodies from mother
Agents: drugs, alcohol, ace inhibitors, anticonvulsants, cocaine, coumadin
Infections/viruses: Rubella, Syphilis and toxoplasmosis, herpes varicella, cytomegalovirus.
possessing different alleles at a given locus; dominant gene and its recessive allele
identical alleles; either dominant or recessive
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