Psyc Exam 1 (prt 2)

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  1. Protection from physical and psychological harm
    minimize/warn of any possible physical/ phychological risks (cost- benefit analysis
  2. Right to Privacy
    individual results or data must be kept anonymous &/or confidential
  3. Participation is Voluntary
    right the withdrraw at any given moment
  4. Informed Consent
    requires participants to know of possible risks before agreeing to participate
  5. "do no harm"
    • 1960's New York: Willow Brook state school(hepatitis study)
    • *legal and other harm to participants (physical and mental)
    • Germany Nazi "medical research" and Tuskegee syphilis study
  6. Placebo
    a false treatment, such as a pill (drug) or other substance without any significant chemical properties or active ingredient
  7. Double' Blind Procedure
    keeping both the participant and the experimenter who intereacts with the participant "blind" to the nature of that drug being administered
  8. What are neurons?
    nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system
  9. Dendrites
    a cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages form other neurons
  10. Axon
    the part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons
  11. Terminal Buttons
    small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons
  12. Cell body
    end of neuron containing the cell nucleous
  13. Myelin Sheath
    a protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon
  14. All-or-None law
    the rule that neurons are either on or off
  15. Resting State
    (-) electrical charge before it fires: the state in which there is a neg electrical charge of about -70millivolts within a neuron
  16. Action Potential
    electrical nerve impluse that moves through neuron. causes neuron to fire
  17. Mirror Neurons
    • fire when you exhibit a certain behavior/ fire when you see someone else exhibiying a certain behavior
    • *exists in infancy
  18. Synapse
    area between two neurons. communicates with chemical messages
  19. Neurotransmitter
    chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron
  20. Excitatory
    increases the likelihood that neuron will fire
  21. Inhibitory
    decrease the likelihood that neuron will fire
  22. Reuptake
    the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button
  23. Acetycholine
    involved in motor control, memory and cognition
  24. Glutamate
    formation/ making new memories
  25. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)
    • major inhibitory neurotransmitter in nervous system
    • *eating, aggression, sleeping
  26. Dopamine (DA)
    motor control, attension, reward, pleasure, emotions
  27. Serotonin
    regulation of mood, pain and sleep
  28. Endorphins
    endogenous morphine
  29. Spinal cord
    transmitts messages between the brain and the rst of the body
  30. reflex
    automatic responses to stimulate
  31. Sensory (afferent) neurons
    carries messages away to the central neurvous system
  32. Motor (efferent) neurons
    carries messages from the central nervoussystem
  33. Interneurons
    carries messages between sensory and motor neurons
  34. Somatic Division
    voluntary muscle activation (dancing, writing, standing up)
  35. Automatic Division
    automatic movement: controls smooth muscle & glands such as the heart and breathing
  36. Sympathetic Divison
    • prepares the body for action in stressful situations
    • *fight or flight
  37. Parasympathetic Division
    • calms the body after emergency ends
    • *peace
  38. Hindbrain
    basic vital activities
  39. Medulla
    breathing and heartbeat
  40. Pons
    transmit motor information
  41. Cerebellum
  42. Reticular formation
    activates other parts of the brain to produce bodily arousal
  43. Thalamus
    • relay station for info about the sense
    • *smell, taste
  44. Hypothalamus
    • homeostasis
    • *hunger, thirst, temp. control
  45. Amygdala
    emotions and aggression
  46. Hippocampus
    memory and learning (formation of memories)
  47. Cerebral cortex
    gives the ability to think, evaluate and make complex judgements
  48. Frontal lobes
    planning memory search, motor processing, and reasoning logics
  49. Pareital lobes (top of brain)
    attention, spatial location, and somatosensory (touch and pressure)
  50. Occipital lobe (very back)
    visual processing
  51. Motor area of the cortex
    responsible for the body's voluntary movement
  52. Sensory area of cortex
    corresponds to body's sensations
  53. Phineas Gage
    rod through his face changed his personality
  54. Association area of the cortex
    executive functions (higher mental processes such as thinking, lanuage, memory, and speech)
  55. Broca's aphasia
    problems speaking
  56. Wernicke's aphasia
    understanding spech
  57. Neuroplasticity
    • the brain continually recognizes itself
    • *ability of neurons to change in structure and function
  58. Neurogenesis
    new neurons are created certain areas of the brain throughout life
  59. Lateralization
    two sides of the brain
  60. Left hemisphere
    • language center of brain
    • verbal competence
    • analytical and problem solving
  61. Right hemisphere
    • spatial relations
    • creativity
    • recognition of patterns
  62. Split-brain operation
    images sent only to the right hemisphere cannot be verbalized
Card Set
Psyc Exam 1 (prt 2)
Modules 4-7
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