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  1. Egyptian "firsts"(5)
    • Stone public architecture
    • Monotheism and transcendence
    • Great art style
    • Medical science (i.e. mummification, prostheses)
  2. Approaches to ancient Egypt (4)
    • Historical
    • Archaeological
    • Philological
    • Art historical
  3. The historical approach to ancient Egypt...
    Emphasizes the people and events that shaped ancient Egypt
  4. The archaeological approach...(3)
    • Studies material culture and remains
    • Considers all social actors, not just rulers
    • Is often used with other approaches
  5. The philological approach...(3)
    • Is "Egyptology"
    • Studies ancient E through hieroglyphs and their meaning
    • Also studies changes in language, particularly in writing
  6. The art historical approach...(2)
    • Looks at ancient E through art
    • How it has changed over time (slowly, because it was supposed to be eternal and reflect world order!)
  7. In ancient Egypt, temple walls were like _________
  8. Greek historian who wrote about Egyptians (among others), not sure how much of his information is accurate
  9. Seriation refers to ________, and was invented by _______
    • The study of change of artifacts over time
    • Flinders-Petrie
  10. Traditional enemies of the Egyptians (2)
    How do we know this?
    • Nubians to the South, Asiatic to the East
    • They were often shown in degrading circumstances in art
  11. In depictions of themselves, Egyptian men were _______, and women are _______
    • Red
    • Yellow
  12. "Upper Egypt" refers to __________, and is located ______
    • South of Cairo, north of Aswan
    • South
  13. "Lower Egypt" refers to __________, and is located _______
    • The Delta region north of Cairo
    • North
  14. Out of the ______ major oases of Egypt, _______ is the most important
    • 6
    • Faiyum
  15. Fertile land in the Nile Valley is known as ______, while the barren desert beyond the valley is _____
    • kmt
    • dsrt
  16. 3 Egyptian seasons
    • Akhet (inundation), July-October
    • Peret , November-February
    • Shemu (dry season), March-June
  17. Important points of Akhet (5)
    • Rain in Sudan raises White Nile
    • Rain in Ethiopia raises Blue Nile
    • Huge swelling reaches Aswan, river basin floods
    • Flooding brings water and alluvium, and washes away salts
    • Egyptians cut canals to control and channel the Akhet floods
  18. Important point of Peret
    Waters have receded enough to plant
  19. Important points of Shemu (2)
    • Wheat and barley are harvested (2 main crops)
    • Cereals cannot live by May-June
  20. Goals of the Egyptian Campaign of 1798-1801 (4)
    • Cut off British Land Route to India
    • Copy Alexander the Great and conquer Egypt
    • Scholarship and art (brought lots of knowledgeable people along to study)
    • Get Napoleon out of France!
  21. Mamelukes
    Former slaves who ran Egypt while it was still technically part of the Ottoman Empire, when Napoleon invaded
  22. Battle of the Pyramids
    War between French and Mamelukes in which the French gained control, 1798
  23. Battle of the Nile (Abu Qir Bay)
    War between French and British for control of Egypt
  24. 3 scripts of the Rosetta Stone
    • Hieroglyphs
    • Demotic
    • Greek
  25. Egyptian script, not on the Rosetta Stone, that was like a cursive version of hieroglyphs
  26. Egyptian writing used for priests, tombs, and big formal proclamations
  27. Egyptian writing used in everyday function, i.e. records and administrative documents
  28. Official language of Egypt during the Ptolemaic period
  29. Importance of Thomas Young in the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone (3)
    • Realized hieroglyphs have phonetic aspect
    • Realized cartouches contain king names
    • Read phonetic (almost alphabetic) aspects of Rosetta Stone
  30. Importance of Champollion in the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone
    • Realized that Coptic liturgy would be key to understanding Egyptian scripts
    • Translated it over 20 years
  31. Three aspects to Egyptian hieroglyphs
    • Phonetic
    • Determinative
    • Ideogram
  32. Sound or "alphabetic" aspect of Egyptian hieroglyphs
  33. Picture added at the end of a phonetic inscription in Egyptian hieroglyphs
  34. Complicated idea that is represented in both picture and writing, eventually became more phonetic and was used to shorten writing
  35. A stone placed in front of temples to be read like a billboard
  36. What does the Rosetta Stone say?
    Thanks Ptolemy V for a tax break, written by priests
  37. ka
    life force that leaves the body with death, in the form of glowing orbs
  38. ba
    one's personality, which leaves the tomb after burial to go on a journey through the Underworld with Horus and is subsequently judged by Anubis
  39. ankh
    one's spirit that, if deemed in balance, emerges in the bright realm ruled by Osiris and can re-enter the world of the living
  40. nome
    major Egyptian city(ies)
  41. Seth (4)
    • God of chaos, infertility, storms (desert qualities)
    • Viewed as “bad guy” in U.E., but much less so in L.E.
    • Kills his brother Osiris, but helps the sun in the underworld
    • Often shown as the "Seth-Animal,"(unlike any existing creature) or a hippo
  42. Ra/Re (4)
    • Sun god and important creator, merged with Atun, another creator sun god
    • Cultic center at Heliopolis
    • Often shown with ram or hawk head
    • Wears sun disk
  43. Ptah (6)
    • Creator god, god of craftsmen
    • Cultic center at Memphis
    • Wife Sekhmet
    • Son Nefertem
    • Shown as human, green and "semi-mummified"
    • Has a 3 part scepter
  44. Ben ben stones are _________
    squat obelisks
  45. Sekhmet (3)
    • Lioness of destruction, an avatar of Hathor
    • Wife of Ptah
    • According to myth, became hooked on slaughtering humans until Ptah gave her blood-looking beer to drink, making her pass out; exemplifies god worship and Nile importance
  46. Nefertem (2)
    • Primeval lotus blossom
    • Son of Ptah and Sekhmet
  47. Thoth (5)
    • God of wisdom, writing, knowledge, moon
    • "Heart and tongue of Ra"
    • Cultic center at Hermopolis Magna
    • Shown with Ibis head or as baboon
    • Some creation myths involve him speaking "the word" to create the world, in others he creates it from an egg
  48. Aten (4)
    • The sun disk
    • For most of Egyptian history, a very minor god
    • But during Amarna period, became the sole official god of Egypt
    • Monotheistic faith was based on the king
  49. Osiris (5)
    • God of death, afterlife, rebirth, fertility, and agriculture
    • Cultic center was Abydos
    • Shown as mummified man, often with atef crown
    • Husband of Isis, father of Horus
    • Killed by brother Seth; first mummy, origin of funeral pratices
  50. Atef crown (2)
    Festival crown worn by kings, commonly shown in depictions of Osiris
  51. Hathor (5)
    • Goddess mother of kings, nurture, love, music, sexuality, sky, alcohol
    • Dendera is her cultic center
    • Shown as a cow or with cow attributes, and with sun disk on her head
    • Often shown nursing son Ihy or king
    • Husband/child is Horus
  52. Amun (6)
    • King of gods
    • "The Hidden One"
    • Later often fused with Min, Horus, or Ra
    • Thebes is cultic center
    • Shown as a human with 2 feathers, sometimes ran/goose/frog-headed
    • When he has one arm, one leg, and one phallus, he is "Amun-Min"
  53. Horus (4)
    • God of sky and kingship
    • Cultic centers at Hierakonpolis and later Edfu
    • Son of Isis and Osiris, husband/son of Hathor
    • Shown with falcon head
  54. Khnum (3)
    • Creator god, pottery, cataract, and fertile soil
    • Depicted as goat/with goat's head, refers to spirit/personality
    • Main cultic center was Elephantine, ancient Aswan
  55. Isis/Ist (5)
    • "She of the Throne," queen, mother of kings, magic, healing
    • Cultic center at Philae
    • Shown with a throne in her headdress, or sun disc between cow's horns
    • Often has protective wings
    • Wife of Osiris, mother of Horus, similar to Ester
  56. Atum (2)
    • "The Complete One," from the creation myth of Heliopolis
    • Gave birth to Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture), led to 4 generations known as the Ennead (nine) of Heliopolis
  57. Atum's 4 great-grandchildren
    • Aser (Osiris): god of dead/underworld, principal god of Upper Egypt
    • Ist (Isis): godess of life, magic, queens
    • Nebt-het (Nephthys): sky goddess
    • Seth: god of desert, typhoons, evil
  58. Principal god of Upper Egypt
  59. Anubis (2)
    • Jackal-headed underworld god of Lower Egypt
    • Son of Nephthys (who disguised herself as Isis) and Osiris
  60. Overall meaning of Egyptian creation myths (9)
    • Universe is not eternal
    • Universe was created in paired dualities
    • It is natural (maat) for Egypt to spread its influence
    • Evil is always with us
    • How to be resurrected
    • A king must always have an heir
    • Struggle between good and evil--good always wins
    • Metaphors of the struggle to unify Upper and Lower Egypt
    • A son MUST succeed his father as pharaoh
  61. Lower Paleolithic (4)
    • 700-250 kya
    • Modern H. sapiens by 125 kya
    • Tools were probably made by both H. erectus and H. sapiens
    • Acheulean handaxes for small-scale hunting/chopping were characteristic, assoc. with H. erectus
  62. Middle Paleolithic (7)
    • 250-50 kya
    • Transition from H. erectus to archaic to modern H. sapiens
    • Environment much lusher with more flora and fauna
    • Hunting small and large game
    • Large hearths
    • Levallois flakes
    • Oldest "true" burial at Taramsa
  63. Upper Paleolithic (5)
    • 50-24 kya
    • Sites are rare in this time in Egypt
    • Nazlet Khater-4 site is early example of mining
    • Hearths associated with mining pits
    • Blade-based bifaces become characteristic
  64. Late Paleolithic (9)
    • 24-10 kya
    • Arid climate, less water
    • Lots of composite small tools
    • First evidence of grinding tools
    • No agriculture, but fishing, hunting, and plant consumption
    • Beginning of inundation cycle
    • Qadan Industry characterized by microlithic flake assemblage
    • Violent deaths (based on skeletal remains), reasons unsure
    • Hiatus in occupation of Nile Valley at the end (11000-7400 ya)
  65. Epipaleolithic (6)
    • 10 kya - 8 kya
    • Qarunian Culture:
    • Still no agriculture/domestication, because they didn't need it
    • Hunter-Gatherers who lived by the lake
    • No evidence of permanent settlement
    • Microlithic toolkit (tiny chert blades and composite tools)
  66. Neolithic (6)
    • 8000/5500 - 4000 BC
    • Stone tools associated with grain processing and land modification
    • First pottery
    • First settled village life
    • First domesticated animals
    • 2 areas at 2 different times: Saharan Neolithic and Nile Neolithic
  67. Saharan Neolithic (3)
    • 8800-4700 BC, Nubia (aka "Ceramic Period")
    • No permanent houses, no agriculture, but presence of ceramics
    • Site of Nabta Playa possibly had domesticated animals, but were also hunting-gathering--these people probably became Nubians
  68. Nile Neolithic (5)
    • 5500-4000 BC, Faiyum/Delta region
    • In Faiyum A culture, agriculture is introduced from the Levant
    • No permanent houses yet
    • Animal husbandry, fishing were important
    • Merimda and Badarian Cultures
  69. Merimda (5)
    • 4720-4250 BC, Nile Delta site during Nile Neolithic
    • Evidence of permanent oval dwellings out of wood
    • Well-developed hearths, storage jars, clay pots, figurines
    • Imported ivory
    • Burials without grave goods, so probably no social differentiation
  70. Badarian Culture (4)
    • 4400-4000 BC, Nile Neolithic site in El Badari, Middle Egypt
    • Simple agricultural villages, but imported things from far south
    • Pit burials suggest uneven distribution of wealth--goods included jewelry, beads and statuettes
    • Storage pits and vessels
  71. Predynastic period (dates and phases)
    • 4000-3000 BC
    • Maadi
    • Naqada I
    • Naqada II
    • Naqada III
  72. Naqada I (5)
    • 4000-3500 BC, Upper Egypt
    • Based mostly on funerary remains from 10,000 graves
    • Grows out of earlier Badarian Culture
    • Beginnings of social complexity indicated by grave goods, inc. mace heads
    • Dead were buried in contracted position in oval pits, with mats below the bodies
  73. Naqada II (9)
    • 3500-3200 BC, Upper Egypt/Nubia/Parts of Lower Egypt
    • Social differentiation accelerated
    • Replaced Maadi in Lower Egypt and Nubia by 3200 BC
    • Some tombs were much larger and more elborate, others simple oval pits
    • Cosmetic palettes, effigy vessels, imported ivory
    • Most prominent motif on pottery is the boat (status symbol/Nile reference)
    • Fancy raw materials imported for elite class
    • Mace head becomes a symbol of power
    • First mummification (wrapped in linen)
  74. Social implications of Naqada II (5)
    • Must have been a class of artisans designed to serve the elite
    • Settlement clustered on the banks of the Nile
    • Domesticated livestock and crops were important
    • Hunting of large game became a socially restricted activity
    • More advanced houses and settlements led to large towns
  75. Maadian Culture (Northern areas) (7)
    • 4000-3200 BC, crossroads between Levant, Naqada, & Western Desert
    • Very different from Naqada I & II of the same time
    • Copper ore brought in for cosmetics, copper tools traded
    • Large oval subterranean houses and rectangular huts, probably permanent (based on hearths/debris/buried jars)
    • Lots of domesticated animals
    • More like Middle East than Upper Egypt or Nubia
    • Slight differentiation in burials
  76. Tomb U-J (6)
    • Site in Abydos, from the Early Dynasty 0, c. 3150 BC
    • Royal multilevel tomb with 400 vessels
    • Bone and ivory objects, including royal scepter
    • 150 bone labels with hieroglyphs
    • First writing in Egypt
    • Early Horus name shows possible beginnings of gods
  77. White crown (2)
    Bowling pin shaped, represents Upper Egypt
  78. Red crown
    Represents Lower Egypt
  79. Double crown (2)
    White and red crowns fused as one, represents Unified Egypt
  80. Narmer (2)
    1st ruler of unified Egypt, 3000 BC
  81. Narmer Palette
    • Shows beginnings of canonical art form, 3 registers
    • Not sure if it means Upper and Lower Egypt were unified by political force, seems to depict it
    • May have just been Narmer propaganda, along with the 2 mace heads found at the same site
  82. Naqada III/Dynasty 0 (8)
    • Kingship and state evolve in Upper Egypt
    • First use of Serekh name and white crown of Upper Egypt, Narmer takes red crown of L. Egypt as well
    • First writing for both kingly and administrative art
    • Some evidence for unification by warfare
    • Naqada fades away, Hierakonpolis becomes seat of government, Abydos becomes burial place of kings
    • Kings were like Gods with immense power (esp. manpower)
    • Began irrigation projects for inundation
  83. Single line of kings
  84. Early Dynastic Period (5)
    • 3000-3686 BC
    • 1st and 2nd dynasties, Pharaonic period begins
    • Begins with shift of royal capital from Hierakonpolis to Memphis
    • Saqqara is established as necropolis for non-royal elites and royal cenotaphs, Abydos stays royal necropolis
    • Little known about 2nd Dynasty
  85. Shabti
    Figurines meant to accompany and protect kings in the afterlife, buried in their tombs
  86. Dynasty II is defined by
    A shift away from Abydos as royal burial site
  87. Uncertainties of Dynasty II (2)
    • Peribsen used Seth-animal on his Serekh, instead of Horus (what everyone else used), not sure if this meant rebellion, conflict, fragmentation, etc.
    • Last king of the Dynasty (Khasekhemwy) used both Horus and Seth-animal on his Serekh
  88. Old Kingdom (7)
    • 2686-2160 BC
    • Period of great prosperity and unrivalled world power
    • First (and largest) pyramids
    • Establishment of great art tradition
    • First 5-part names for kings
    • End marked by division of Egypt
    • We know about this period from papyrus record, Turin Canon
  89. Djoser (Netjerikhet) (4)
    • Djoser means "holy/sacred"
    • Built the first large building in the world and built it of stone (Stepped Pyramid of Saqqara)
    • Had a Heb-Sed complex in his tomb to indicate he would still be ruling in eternity
  90. Stepped Pyramid of Saqqara
    • Burial place of Djoser, world's first stone monument
    • Built with serdab, mortuary temple, Heb-Sed complex, and southern temple
    • Imhotep was the architect
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2012-02-01 03:00:21

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