Human Anatomy: Ch 3 Tissues

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omi14
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130419
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Human Anatomy: Ch 3 Tissues
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2012-01-25 02:27:47
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bio 307 tissues human anatomy
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BIO 307 review of Ch. 3 Tissues
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  1. What are the characteristics of epithelial tissues?
    • Cellularity
    • Polarity
    • Attachment
    • Avascularity
    • Sheets and layers
    • Regeneration
  2. What is apical surface?
    The exposed surface of epithelial cells.
  3. What is basal surface?
    The attached base of epithelial cells.
  4. What is the basal layer of epithelial tissues attached to?
    Basal lamina
  5. What are the functions of epithelial tissues?
    • Provide protection
    • Control permeability
    • Provide sensation
    • Produce secretions
  6. Differentiate microvilli and cilia
    • Microvilli increases surface area for absorption
    • Cilia moves substances such as secretions and so it moves
  7. What are the parts of the basal lamina?
    • Lamina lucida
    • Lamina densa
  8. What are some intercellular connections between epithelial cells and why is it important?
    • Cell junctions, CAMs (cell adhesion molecules), intercellular cement, physical interlocking
    • It provides strength and stability in order to block harmful substances from getting in.
  9. What are the classification of epethilial tissue based on number of cell layers?
    • Single
    • Stratified
  10. What are the classification of epethilial tissue based on the shape of the cells at the apical surface?
    • Squamous
    • Cuboidal
    • Columnar
    • Transitional
  11. Give an example of where to find simple squamous epithelium.
    Lines heart and blood vessels
  12. Give an example of where to find stratified squamous epithelium.
    Surface of skin (where there's more exposure and abration)
  13. Give an example of where to find simple cuboidal epithelium.
    Glands
  14. Give an example of where to find stratified cuboidal epithelium.
    Sweat gland ducts
  15. Give an example of where to find simple columnar epithelia.
    Lining of stomach
  16. Give an example of where to find stratified columnar epithelium.
    Anus
  17. What type of epithelial tissue lines the trachea?
    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
  18. What type of epithelial tissue lines the urinary bladder?
    Transitional epithelium.
  19. What are the types of secretions made by epithelial tissues?
    • Exocrine (outside, surfaces)
    • Endocrine (within)
  20. What are the types of exocrine glands?
    • Serous glands
    • Mucous glands
    • Mixed exocrine glands
  21. What are serous glands?
    Secretes watery solution containing enzymes (e.g. saliva)
  22. What are mucous glands?
    Secrets mucus (e.g. mucus in saliva)
  23. What are mixed exocrine glands?
    Has more than one typ eof gland cell and may produce both serous and mucous secretions.
  24. What are the modes of secretion?
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Holocrine
  25. What is merocrine secretion?
    Secretory product is released through exocytosis (uses secretory vesicles)
  26. What is apocrine secretion?
    The apical surface of the cell is shed along with its components.
  27. What is holocrine secretion?
    The cells on the surface of the gland break apart and the whole cell is released in the secretion.
  28. What are the functions of connective tissues?
    • Establish structural framework of body (ligaments, bones, tendons)
    • Transport fluid and dissolved materials (blood)
    • Protect organs (bone)
    • Support, surround and connect other tissues.
    • Store energy (weakly)
    • Defend body from microorganisms (lymph)
  29. What are the components of connective tissues?
    • Special cells (fixed vs. wandering)
    • Matrix
  30. What is the matrix of connective tissues composed of?
    • Extracellular protein fibers
    • Ground substance
  31. What are the types of extracellular protein fibers?
    • Collagen
    • Reicular
    • Elastic
  32. What is the function of collagen fibers?
    Provides tensile strength
  33. What is the function of reticular fibers?
    Provides network/structure
  34. What is the function of elastic fibers?
    Allows stretching.
  35. What are the types of connective tissues?
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Blood and lymph
    • Suporting connective tissue
  36. What are the types of connective tissue proper?
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
  37. What are the types of loose connective tissue?
    • Areolar tissue
    • Adipose tissue
    • Reticular tissue
  38. Explain what areolar tissues are and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Open network, all cells of connective tissue proper can be found
    • Cushions organs
    • E.g. found around blood vessels
  39. Explain what adipose tissues are and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Composed mainly of adiposityes
    • Provides padding and cushions shock
    • E.g. found deep within skin
  40. Explain what reticular tissues are and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Has framework of reticular fibers
    • Provides supporting framework
    • E.g. found in liver
  41. What are the types of dense connective tissues?
    • Dense regular connective tissue
    • Elastic tissue
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
  42. Explain what dense regular connective tissues are and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Densely packed collagen fibers with fibrocytes
    • Provides firm attachment
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Found b/w muscle and skeleton
  43. What are the types of dense regular connective tissues?
    • Tendons
    • Ligaments
    • Aponeuroses
  44. What are aponeuroses?
    • Dense regular connective tissue
    • Covers surface of muscles
  45. What are tendons?
    • Dense regular connective tissue
    • Attach muscle to bones/cartilage
  46. What are ligaments?
    • Dense regular connective tissue
    • Connects bone-bone
  47. Explain what elastic tissues are and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Stabilizes positions of vertebrae
    • Permits expansion/contraction
    • Found b/w vertebrae
  48. Explain what dense irregular connective tissues are and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Provides strength to resist force from various directions
    • Found in dermis
  49. What are the types of fluid connective tissues?
    • Blood
    • Lymph
  50. What are the elements of blood?
    • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
    • White blood cells (leukocytes)
    • Platelets
  51. What is the matrix of blood cells called?
    Plasma
  52. What is lymph?
    • Interstitial fluid that enters lymphatic vessels to be brought back into blood vessels
    • Most of cells are lymphocytes; rest are macrophages and microphages
    • Responds to signs of infection or injury
  53. What are the two types of supporting connective tissues?
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
  54. What are the characteristics of supporting connective tissues?
    • Few cells
    • High amounts of fiber
    • Ground substance may contain insoluble calcium salts
  55. What are the components of cartilage?
    • Chondrocytes
    • Matrix
  56. What are chondrocytes?
    • Cartilage cells in lucanae
    • Secretes matrix (appositional vs. interstitial growth)
  57. What are the types of cartilage?
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  58. Explain what hyaline cartilage is and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Provides stiff, somewhat flexible support, reduces friction
    • Composed of chondrocytes and matrix
    • Found between tips of ribs and bones of sternum (anywhere two bones come together)
  59. Explain what elastic cartilage is and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Provides support, tolerates distoration w/o damage
    • Composed of chondrocytes and elastic fibers in matrix
    • Found in auricle of external ear
  60. Explain what fibrous cartilage is and give an example of where it can be found.
    • Resists compression, limits relative movement, prevents bone-bone contact (thick pads)
    • Composed of chondrocytes and fibrous matrix
    • Found in intervertebral discs

  61. What is this an image of?
    Bone tissue
  62. What is neural tissue composed of?
    Neurons and neuroglia
  63. What are membranes?
    Epithelial sheet and connective tissue layer
  64. What are the types of membranes?
    • Mucous membranes
    • Serous membranes
    • Cutaneous membranes
    • Synovial membranes
  65. What is a mucous membrane?
    • Lines passageways that communicate with the exterior (e.g. respiratory tract)
    • Moist, lubricated by mucus
  66. What are the types of serous membranes?
    • Pleura
    • Peritoneum
    • Pericardium
  67. What is a serous membrane?
    Lines ventral body cavities
  68. What is a cutaneous membrane?
    It is the skin and covers the surface of body
  69. What is a synovial membrane?
    • Lines joint cavities, reduces friction
    • Produces fluid w/in joint
  70. What are the layers of connective tissue?
    • Superficial fascia
    • Deep fascia
    • Subserous fascia
  71. What is superficial fascia?
    • layer of connective tissues b/w skin and underlying organs
    • Composed of areolar and adipose tissue
  72. What is deep fascia?
    Layer of dense connective tissue that forms strong, internal framework
  73. What is subserous fascia?
    • Layer of connective tissue b/w serous membranes and deep fascia
    • Composed of areolar tissue
  74. What are the types of muscle tissues?
    • Skeletal muscle tissue
    • Cardiac muscle tissue
    • Smooth muscle tissue
  75. What are skeletal muscle tissues?
    • Large fibers in banding pattern, unbranched
    • Moves skeleton and allows voluntary movement
  76. What are cardiac muscle tissues?
    • Branched organization
    • Short cells
    • Found in heart
    • Involuntary movement
  77. What are smooth muscle tissues?
    • Short, spindle shaped
    • Found in walls of blood bessels, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive organs
    • Involuntary movement
  78. Which types of tissues cannot regenerate?
    • Cardiac muscle tissue
    • neural tissue
  79. As one ages, what happens to tissues?
    • Repair and maintenance become less efficient
    • Epithelia thins
    • Connective tissues become fragile

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