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  1. Democratic Centralism
    The democratic aspect of this organizational method describes the freedom of members of the political party to discuss and debate matters of policy and direction, but once the decision of the party is made by majority vote, all members are expected to uphold that decision.
  2. Direct Democracy
    Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly.
  3. Representative Democracy
    Government in which the people elect those who govern and pass laws; also called a republic.
  4. Republicanism
    a form of government in which leaders are elected for a specific period by the preponderance of the citizenry, and laws are passed by leaders for the benefit of the entire republic, rather than a select aristocracy. In an ideal republic, leaders are selected from among the working citizenry; serve the republic for a defined period, then return to their work, never to serve again.
  5. Majoritarian politics
    A policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays.
  6. Client politics
    A policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays.
  7. Interest Groups
    - An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
  8. Interest group politics
    A policy in which one small group benefits and another small group pays.
  9. Entrepreneurial politics
    A policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost.
  10. Policy entrepreneurs
    Activists in or out of government who pull together a political majority on behalf of unorganized interests.
  11. Bureaucracy
    A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials.
  12. Elites
    Person who possesses a disproportionate share of some valued resource, like money or power.
  13. Push-button Democracy
    People vote instead of Congress.
  14. Pluralist Politics-
    The belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy.
  15. Unalienable Rights
    A human right based on nature or God.
  16. The Virginia Plan
    Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
  17. The NJ Plan
    Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally.
  18. The Great Compromise
    Plan to have a popularly elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate, with two members for each state.
  19. Extended Republic
    a large nation with a multiplicity of crosscutting interests.
  20. Faction-
    A group with a distinct political interest.
  21. Bill of Attainder-
    - A law that declares a person, without trial, to be guilty of a crime.
  22. Ex Post Facto law
    A law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed.
  23. Creditor
    a party (e.g. person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim to the services of a second party. It is a person or institution to whom money is owed.
  24. Unitary System-
    -Constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government.
  25. 10th Amendment
    he Tenth Amendment states the Constitution's principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the States by the Constitution are reserved to the States or the people.
  26. Necessary and proper clause
    Clause in the Constitution that states that “Congress should have the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers. . . .” This clause is also known as the elastic clause as is a major and significant power of Congress, granting Congress the ability to interpret its lawmaking ability in a broad manner.
  27. John Marshall-
    the Chief Justice of the United States (1801–1835) whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches.
  28. McCulloch vs. Maryland
    The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
  29. Dual Federalism
    - Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers—primarily foreign policy and national defense—to the national government, leaving the rest to the sovereign states. Each level of government is dominant within its own sphere. The Supreme Court serves as the umpire between the national government and the states in disputes over which level of government has responsibility for a particular activity.
  30. Grants-in-aid
    Money given by the national government to the states.
  31. Categorical grants
    Congress appropriates funds for a specific purpose, such as school lunches or for building airports and highways. These funds are allocated by formula and are subject to detailed federal conditions, often on a matching basis; that is, the local government receiving the federal funds must put up some of its own dollars. Categorical grants, in addition, provide federal supervision to ensure that the federal dollars are spent as Congress wants.
  32. Revenue Sharing
    Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenues wit the states.
  33. Block Grants-
    These are broad state grants to states for prescribed activities—welfare, child care, education, social services, preventive health care, and health services—with only a few strings attached. States have greater flexibility in deciding how to spend block grant dollars, but when the federal funds for any fiscal year are gone, there are no more matching federal dollars.
  34. Conditions of Aid
    Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
  35. Mandates
    A requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds.
  36. Americans with Disabilities Act-
    wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability.
  37. South Dakota vs. Dole
    a case in which the United States Supreme Court considered federalism and the power of the United States Congress under the Taxing and Spending Clause.
  38. Layer Cake Federalism
    -Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers—primarily foreign policy and national defense—to the national government, leaving the rest to the sovereign states. Each level of government is dominant within its own sphere. The Supreme Court serves as the umpire between the national government and the states in disputes over which level of government has responsibility for a particular activity.
  39. Devolution
    The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states.
  40. Fiscal-
    Through different grant programs, slices up the marble cake into many different pieces, making it even more difficult to differentiate the functions of the levels of government.
  41. Random Sample
    Method of selecting from a population in which each person has an equal probability of being selected.
  42. Sampling error
    The difference between the results of random samples taken at the same time.
  43. Populist-
    dvocates "classical liberalism" and a return to what they call "genuine" Constitutional government. As such it is an amalgam of classical liberalism and modern conservatism.
  44. Halo Effect
    a cognitive bias where a trait (characteristic of a person or object) influences another trait or traits of that person or object.
  45. 26th Amendment
    limited the minimum voting age to no less than 18
  46. National Voter Registration Act, 1994
    The legislation required state governments to allow for registration when a qualifying voter applied for or renewed their driver's license or applied for social services.
  47. Franchise
    A right or privilege
  48. Australian ballot
    A secret ballot printed by the state.
  49. 1st Party System-
    model of American politics used by political scientists and historians to periodize the political party system existing in the United Statesbetween roughly 1792 and 1824. It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Republican Party (Democratic-Republican Party) formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
  50. 2nd Party System-
    The Second Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political party system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, after the First Party System. The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels of voter interest beginning in 1828, as demonstrated by Election Day turnout, rallies, partisan newspapers, and a high degree of personal loyalty to party.[1][2]
  51. Mugwumps
    Republican party faction of the 1890s to the 1910s composed of reformers who opposed patronage.
  52. National Committee
    Delegates who run party affairs between national conventions.
  53. Congressional Caucus
    a group of members of the United States Congress that meets to pursue common legislative objectives. Caucuses are formed as congressional member organizations (CMOs) through the United States House of Representatives and governed under the rules of that chamber.
  54. Anti-Masonic Party
    the first "third party" in the United States.[1] It strongly opposed Freemasonry and was founded as a single-issue party aspiring to become a major party.
  55. National Nominating Convention
    A meeting of party delegates held every four years.
  56. Delegates
    An official who is expected to represent the views of his or her constituents even when personally holding different views; one interpretation of the role of legislator. Superdelegates- most of the superdelegates are seated automatically, based solely on their status as current (Republican and Democratic) or former (Democratic only) party leaders and elected officials ("PLEOs"). Others are chosen during the primary season. All the superdelegates are free to support any candidate for the nomination.
  57. Congressional Campaign Committee
    A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would-be members.
  58. Plurality System
    An electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes even if he or she does not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections.
  59. PAC
    A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations.
  60. Clothespin vote-
    A clothespin vote is when you don't like the candidate put up by your party but vote for him/her anyhow being loyal to your party and because the alternate is more disagreeable to you.
  61. Closed Primary
    - A primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members.
  62. Blanket Primary
    A primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties.
  63. Presidential Primary
    A special kind of primary used to pick delegates to the presidential nominating conventions of the major parties
  64. Federal Election Commission
    A commission created by the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws. It consists of six commissioners appointed by president and confirmed by the Senate. Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information and public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits.
  65. Soft Money
    Contributions to a state or local party for party-building purposes.
  66. Hard Money-
    Donations made to political candidates, party committees, or groups which, by law, are limited and must be declared.
  67. Prospective Voting
    Voting for a candidate because you favor his or her ideas for handling issues.
  68. Retrospective Voting
    Voting for a candidate because you like his pr her past actions in office.
  69. Lobbyist
    People whose business is trying to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can also lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job.
  70. Interest Groups
    An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
  71. Solidary Incentives
    The social rewards that lead people to join political organizations (sense of pleasure, status or companionship).
  72. Material Incentives
    Money or things valued in monetary terms.
  73. Purposive Incentives
    benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle.
  74. Political Cue-
    A signal telling a legislature what values are at stake in a vote, and how that issue fits into his or her own political views on party agenda.
  75. Dirty Dozen
    members of Congress with the most anti-environment records.
  76. K Street
    n effort by the Republican Party (GOP) to pressure Washington lobbying firms to hire Republicans in top positions, and to reward loyal GOP lobbyists with access to influential officials.
  77. Free Rider
    an employee who pays no union dues or agency shop fees, but nonetheless receives the same benefits of union representation as dues-payers.
  78. Party Press
    Newspapers created, sponsored, and controlled by political parties to further their interests. This form of press existed in the early years of the American republic. Circulation was chiefly among political and commercial elites.
  79. Gatekeeper
    The role played by the media in influencing what subjects become national political issues and for how long.
  80. Scorekeeper
    The role played by the national media in keeping track of and helping make political reputations.
  81. Watchdog-
    The role played by the national media in investigating political personalities and exposing scandals.
  82. Prior Restraint
    is censorship in which certain material may not be published or communicated, rather than not prohibiting publication but making the publisher answerable for what is made known.
  83. FCC
    An agency of the federal government with authority to develop regulations for the broadcast media.
  84. Equal time rule
    An FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates.
  85. Right-of-reply Rule
    A regulation by the FCC permitting a person the right to respond if attacked on a broadcast other than in a regular news program.
  86. Bicameral Legislature
    A legislative assembly composed of two separate houses, such as the U.S. Congress, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
  87. Rules Committee
    In the House of Representatives, the committee that decides which bills come up for a vote, in what order, and under what restrictions on length of debate and on the right to offer amendments. The Senate Rules and Administration Committee, by contrast, possesses few powers.
  88. Filibuster
    - A prolonged speech or series of speeches made to delay action on legislation in the Senate. The purpose is to kill the measure by talking it to death
  89. Cloture-
    A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate.
  90. Rule 22-
    Rule 22 of the Senate, providing for the end of debate on a bill if three fifths of the members agree. A cloture motion is brought to the floor if sixteen senators sign a petition. The purpose is typically to terminate a filibuster and to force a vote on a bill.
  91. Marginal Districts-
    A congressional district in which the winner of the general election gets less than 55 percent of the vote. Such districts could easily switch to the other party in the next election.
  92. Reapportionment
    The assigning by Congress of congressional seats after each census. State legislatures reapportion state legislative districts.
  93. Malapportionment
    The creation of congressional districts in a state which are of unequal size. The Supreme Court in 1964 eliminated the practice by requiring that all districts in a state contain about the same number of people.
  94. Gerrymandering-
    - The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent.
  95. Descriptive Representation
    A term coined by Hannah Pitkin to refer to the statistical correspondence of the demographic characteristics of representatives with those of their constituents.
  96. Substantive Representation
    A term coined by Hannah Pitkin to refer to the correspondence between representatives' opinions and those of their constituents.
  97. Sophomore Surge
    An increase in the number of votes candidates receive between the first time elected and their first time reelected.
  98. Majority Leader-
    he legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate.
  99. Minority Leader
    The head of the minority party in each house of Congress chosen by the caucus of the minority party. This person formulates the minority party's strategy and program.
  100. Whip-
    A member of the party leadership in each house who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken, and attempts to keep a nose count of how the voting on a controversial issue is likely to go.
  101. President Pro Tempore
    A position created in the Constitution to serve as presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the vice president.
  102. Speaker of the House
    constitutionally mandated presiding officer of the House of Representatives. The Speaker is chosen in the caucus of the majority party and is empowered to recognize members to speak on the floor, to rule whether a motion is germane, to assign bills to committee, to appoint House members to select and joint committees, and to appoint the majority members of the Rules Committee.
  103. Party Vote
    The extent to which members of a party vote together in the House and Senate. By any measure, the extent of such voting has fluctuated and is lower now than at the turn of the century, although a slow but steady increase has developed since 1972.
  104. Standing Committees
    The permanent committees of each house with the power to report bills.
  105. Select Committees
    Congressional committee appointed for a limited time period and purpose.
  106. Conference Committees
    A special type of joint committee appointed to resolve differences in House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation.
  107. Multiple Referral
    The practice of referring a bill to several committees. Following 1995 reforms, these can only be done sequentially (one committee acting after another's deliberations have finished) or by assigning distinct portions of the bill to different committees. These reforms applied only to the House; the Senate has had few difficulties with multiple referrals.
  108. Discharge Petition
    A procedure for removing legislation from the control of a committee and bringing it to the floor for immediate consideration. In the House, the petition must contain the names of 218 members to succeed. In the Senate, any member may move to discharge a bill from committee, but the petition requires a majority vote to succeed.
  109. Closed Rule
    Limitation imposed by the Rules Committee of the House of Representatives on the amount of debate time allotted to a bill and on the introduction of amendments from the floor (or of any amendments other than those from the sponsoring committee).
  110. Open Rule-
    Consent from the Rules Committee of the House of Representatives which permits amendments from the floor on a particular piece of legislation.
  111. Restrictive Rule
    Consent from the Rules Committee of the House of Representatives which permits certain amendments to a piece of legislation but not others.
  112. Quorum Call
    A calling of the roll in either house of Congress to see whether the number of representatives in attendance meets the minimum number required to conduct official business.
  113. Rider
    A provision attached to a bill – to which it may or may not be related – in order to secure its passage or defeat.
  114. Christmas-tree bill
    A bill that has lots of riders.
  115. Voice Vote
    A method of voting used in both houses in which members vote by shouting yea or nay. Votes are not recorded.
  116. Division Vote
    A method of voting used in both houses in which members stand and are counted.
  117. Teller Vote
    A method of voting used only in the House. Members' votes are counted by having them pass between two tellers, first the yeas and then the nays. Since 1971, teller votes are recorded at the request of twenty members.
  118. Roll Call Vote
    A method of voting used in both houses in which members answer yea or nay when their names are called. These votes are recorded and occur in the House at the request of 20 percent of its members.
  119. Pork Barrel Legislation
    A bill introduced by a member of Congress that gives tangible benefits, like a highway or bridge, to constituents in the hopes of winning votes in return.
  120. Franking Privilege
    The ability of members of Congress to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature (frank) for postage.
  121. Honoraria-
    Speaking fees accepted by members of Congress. In 1991, the House forbade members to accept honoraria, while the Senate limited such income.
  122. Safe Seat
    a seat in a legislative body (e.g., Congress, Parliament, City Council) which is regarded as fully secured, either by a certain political party, the incumbent representative personally or a combination of both. In such seats, there is very little chance of a seat changing hands because of the political leanings of the electorate in the constituency concerned and/or the popularity of the incumbent member.
  123. Open Seat
    A race without an incumbent
  124. Mark up-
    legislative session held to amend bills
  125. Bipartisan-
    any bill, act, resolution, or other political act in which both of the two major political parties agree about all or many parts of a political choice.
  126. Divided Government
    A government in which one party controls the White House and a different party controls one or both houses of Congress.
  127. White House Office
    These aides oversee the political and policy interests of the president and do not require Senate confirmation for appointment. They can be removed at the discretion of the president.
  128. Pyramid Structure
    A method in which the president organizes his personal staff that has most assistants reporting through a hierarchy to a chief of staff.
  129. Circular Structure
    A method in which the president organizes his personal staff that has cabinet secretaries and assistants reporting directly to the president.
  130. Ad Hoc Structure
    - A method in which the president organizes his personal staff that employs task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends dealing directly with him.
  131. Executive Office of the President
    President- Executive agencies that report directly to the president and whose purpose is to perform staff services for the president. Top positions are filled by presidential nomination with Senate confirmation.
  132. Cabinet-
    By custom, the heads of the fourteen major executive departments who meet to discuss matters with the president. These "secretaries" receive their positions by presidential nomination and confirmation by the Senate. They can be removed at the will of the president.
  133. Pocket veto
    One of two ways for a president to disapprove a bill sent to him by Congress. If the president does not sign the bill within ten days of receiving it, and Congress has adjourned within that time, the bill does not become law.
  134. Line-item Veto
    executive’s ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature.
  135. Executive Privilege
    A claim by the president entitling him to withhold information from the courts or Congress. In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled that such a claim is valid when sensitive military or diplomatic matters are involved, but it refused to recognize an "absolute unqualified" presidential privilege of immunity.
  136. Impoundment of the Funds-
    The refusal of the president to spend money appropriated by Congress. The Constitution is silent on this power, but the Budget Reform Act of 1974 limits the president's ability to impound funds.
  137. Lame Duck
    A politician whose power has been diminished because he or she is about to leave office as a result of electoral defeat or statutory limitation.
  138. 12th Amendment
    provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President.
  139. 20th Amendment
    establishes the beginning and ending of the terms of the elected federal offices. It also deals with scenarios in which there is no President-elect.
  140. 22nd Amendment
    sets a term limit for the President of the United States.
  141. 25th Amendment
    deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
  142. Impeachment-
    A form of indictment voted on by the House of Representatives. It can be brought against the president, the vice president, and all "civil officers" of the federal government. To be removed from his or her position, the impeached officer must be convicted by a two-thirds vote of the Senate.
  143. Executive Agreement
    Agreement made between the president and a leader of a foreign country that does not have to be ratified by the Senate.
  144. Clinton vs. NYC 1998
    a legal case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the line-item veto as granted in the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 violated the Presentment Clause of the United States Constitution because it impermissibly gave the President of the United States the power to unilaterally amend or repeal parts of statutes that had been duly passed by the United States Congress.
  145. Ability to Pay principle
    belief that taxes should be paid according to level of income regardless of benefits received.
  146. Appropriations bills
    legislation earmarking funds for certain purposes
  147. Balanced budget amendment
    constitutional amendment requiring the government to spend no more that it collects in taxes and other revenues, excluding revenue. Only in state govs
  148. Benefit principal of taxation-
    Taxation concept that those who benefit more from government expenditure should pay more taxes to support such expenditure. a
  149. Capital Goods
    manufactured equipment used to make other goods
  150. Consumer goods-
    good intended for use by consumers not businesses
  151. Corporate Income tax
    tax on corporate profits paid by corporations
  152. Deficit spending
    annual government spending in excess of taxes and other revenue
  153. Distribution of income
    the way in which a nations income is divided among individuals families and other groups
  154. Entitlements-
    program or benefits using eligibility requirements to prove health, nutritional or income supplements
  155. Estate tax-
    ax on transferable property when a person dies
  156. Excise tax
    general revenue tax levied on the manufacture or sale of selected items
  157. Factors of Production
    productive resources that make the four categories: land capital labor and entrepreneurship
  158. Federal debt
    total amount of money the government has borrowed from others
  159. FICA-
    federal insurance contributions act, tax levied on people to support social security and Medicare
  160. Grant in aid
    transfer payment from one level of government to another with no compensation
  161. Human Capital-
    sum of people’s skills abilities health and motivation.
  162. Indexing-
    adjustment of tax brackets to offset the effects of inflation
  163. Individual income tax
    • tax levied on wages and other income of individuals
  164. Opportunity Cost-
    the cost of not doing the next best thing
  165. Private Sector
    art of the economy made up of private individuals and businessmen
  166. Progressive tax-
    - tax where percentage of income paid increases as level of income increases
  167. Proportional tax-
    a flat tax through income levels
  168. Regressive tax-
    tax system where percentage goes down as income goes up
  169. Sales tax
    general state or city tax levied on a product at time of sale
  170. Scarcity-
    conflict between a society’s unlimited want and limited resources
  171. Services-
    a work or labor preformed for someone
  172. Sin tax-
    high tax used to discourage socially undesirable product
  173. Transfer Payment
    payment for which the government receives neither goods nor services in return.
  174. Utility-
    capacity of a good or service to be useful to someone
  175. VAT
    tax on the value added at every stage of production
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