A&P TEST 2

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Anonymous
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A&P TEST 2
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2012-01-26 00:11:11
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OBJECTIVES 33
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ATOMIC LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION- MODULE 2
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  1. define ELEMENT
    substance which cannot be split into simpler substances by chemical means
  2. what is the atomic #?
    # in box above the element
  3. what is the mass #?
    bottom # (decimal) rounded
  4. what is the atomic mass (atomic weight)?
    bottom # (decimal)
  5. how do you find the # of neutrons?
    you subtract the mass # from the atomic #
  6. what does the row or period # tell you?
    the # of shells
  7. what does the column or group tell you?
    the # in outer shell
  8. what does the outer shell do?
    determines the chemical properties of the element
  9. 1st, 2nd, & 3rd shells hold how many electrons?
    • 1st- 2
    • 2nd- 8
    • 3rd- 8
  10. shells like to be full, but not over full, what do they do to achieve this?
    atoms will give up or take away electrons to achieve a filled state
  11. electrons loosely associated with the nucleus are...
    free to come and go
  12. define ISOTOPE
    • the # of neutrons varies
    • # protons determines atomic #
  13. what are the 3 isotopes of Hydrogen? and describe...
    • hydrogen-1
    • hydrogen-2- deuterium (2H)- exists in nature
    • hydrogen-3- tritium (3H)- only man made
  14. define RADIOISOTOPES and give an example
    • UNSTABLE isotopes
    • not all radioisotopes decay in the same way
    • ex: hydrogen-3 (3H- tritium)
  15. nuclear fission
    process by which the nucleus comes apart (decays)
  16. electromagnetic radiation
    gamma radiation (photons) are boh waves and particles- these waves have both electrical and magnetic properties
  17. state the correct order of energy (wavelength) in the electromagnetic spectrum, from lowest to highest energy
    • radio waves (radio waves have lowest energy, longest wavelength)
    • infrared
    • ultraviolet (UV light)
    • x-rays
    • gamma rays (highest energy, shortest wavelength)
  18. what is the range for visible light?
    about 400-700 (380-750)
  19. who is said to be the discoverer of light?
    ROY G. BIV (stands for: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet)
  20. what are x-rays? talk about the colors and why
    • photons with high enough energy to penetrate living tissue, so they're used for medical diagnostics
    • dense tissue (bone) appears white (light color) the least dense appear black (dark color)
  21. define IONS
    • charged particle, gets charged (formed) by accepting or donating electrons (negative charge)
    • when there is a deficit of electrons in an atom, there are EXCESS PROTONS, and it has a positive + charge
    • when there are an EXCESS # OF ELECTRONS in an atom, it has a negative - charge
  22. CATION
    excess # protons- POSITIVE + CHARGE
  23. ANION
    excess # of electrons- NEGATIVE - CHARGE
  24. define ELECTROLYTES
    ions are dissolved in the tissues and fluids of the body, in this state they can (& do) conduct electricity (hence the name)
  25. what element is the most common electrolyte?
    • sodium (Na+)
    • (Cl- & bicarbonate- are also common in blood)
  26. define FREE RADICAL
    unpaired electrons (dangerous)
  27. name 3 FREE RADICALS
    • superoxide (O2-)
    • hydroxyl (OH-)
    • peroxinitrite (ONOO-)
  28. what is the importance of free radicals in medicine
    the cell must have ways of destroying or inactivating the free radicals, or they react with important molecules (DNA) and cause damage and eventually disease, so taking biological compounds (omega 3 fatty acids) known as free radical scavengers, will reduce amount of free radicals in cells and prevent disease (true in test tubes, but for human beings it's controversial)
  29. polyatomic ions (ionic compounds)
    combo of certain ions "travel together", many atoms/ ions charged together
  30. in writing the chemical formula for a compound which sides do the metal and non-metals go on?
    just like periodic table, metals to the left sides and non-metals to the right sides
  31. name the COMMON POLYATOMIC IONS found in biological systems
    • ANIONS
    • HCO3- BICARBONATE ION
    • CO3- OR CO3-2 CARBONATE ION
    • PO4-3 PHOSPHATE ION
    • NO3- NITRATE ION
    • NO2- NITRITE ION
    • SO4= OR SO4-2 SULFATE ION
    • SO3= OR SO3-2 SULFITE ION
    • OH- HYDROXIDE ION
  32. CATION
    NH4+ AMMONIUM ION
  33. name the COMMON IONS AND IONIC COMPOUNDS in the body that are CATIONS(+)
    • hydrogen ion H+
    • sodium ion Na+
    • potassium ion K+
    • ammonium ion NH4+
    • magnesium ion Mg2+
    • calcium ion Ca2+
    • iron (ll) ion Fe2+
    • iron (lll) ion Fe3+
  34. name the COMMON IONS AND IONIC COMPOUNDS in the body that are ANIONS (-)
    • fluoride ion F-
    • chloride ion Cl-
    • iodide ion I-
    • hydroxide ion OH-
    • bicarbonate ion HCO3-
    • oxide ion O2-
    • sulfate ion SO42-
    • phosphate ion PO43-
  35. define VALENCE
    same as the # of electrons that will be taken to form anions or the # of electrons which will be given away to form cations (outer shell electrons are valence electrons)
  36. state the relationship between VALENCE & the POSITION of an element on the PERIODIC TABLE
    • because atoms "want" to gain or shed electrons to fill outer shells, valence also describes how many positions one moves on the periodic table to reach a noble gas column (this is related to the group (column) #)
    • groups 1-5 are +1 through +5, starting at group 4 below +4 is -4 and it goes to -1
  37. define COVALENT BONDS
    result when atoms SHARE electrons
  38. COVALENT SINGLE BOND
    when atoms SHARE both of the electrons they hold in common, its indicated by a single line: H-H
  39. COVALENT DOUBLE BONDS
    when 2 electrons are SHARED EQUALLY, its symbolized by a double dash: O=O; O=C=O
  40. COVALENT TRIPLE BOND
    when 3 electrons are SHARED from each atom, its symbolized by three lines (just like double with one more line)
  41. define POLAR COVALENT BONDS
    UNEQUAL SHARING
  42. explain poles and partial charge
    there is oxygen and 2 hydrogens, the electrons mostly hang out with oxygen (the "cool house") so they carry a relatively negative charge, but they go back to hydrogen, but not for long so they carry a relatively positive charge- this bond means that the atoms have a partial charge, so it has poles
  43. define IONIC BONDS
    result when atoms hang out together because they have opposite charges, they are NOT SHARING electrons, but merely attracted by their opposite charges... they're typically formed by elements that lie on opposite extremes of the periodic table
  44. what is a crystal?
    where positively charged ions and negatively charged ions can "live" fairly close to each other and for a regular array
  45. define ELECTRONEGATIVITY
    • the# that describes the likelihood that an atom will "steal" an electron
    • atoms with a HIGH electronegativity # will draw electrons away from atoms with a LOWER #
  46. the 3 most common electronegatives ("thieves") are:
    • N- nitrogen
    • O- oxygen
    • S- sulfur

    *they form DIPOLES
  47. partial positive and negative charge
    elements pull electrons so strongly that they tend to hold a slight negative charge, the atom from whom the electron was stolen has a slight positive charge- they both are not quite equal to a full charge
  48. define DIPOLE
    more positive charges at one end, more negative charges at the other
  49. define HYDROGEN BONDS
    result from the attraction of partial positive and partial negative charges

    • *
    • there would be NO LIFE withou hydrogen bonds
  50. list each bond by relative strength (stongest to weakest)
    • covalent bonds:
    • triple
    • double
    • single
    • ionic bonds
    • hydrogen bonds
  51. give an example of each bond in biological system: covalent, ionic, hydrogen
    • covalent- gases dissolved in blood
    • ionic- teeth and bones
    • hydrogen- 2 strands of DNA together
  52. what are the 4 MAJOR ELEMENTS?
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Carbon
  53. define ATOM
    smallest unit of matter which retain the properties and characteristics of the element
  54. what are the 8 lesser elements?
    • Calcium Ca
    • Phosphorus P
    • Potassium K
    • Sulfur S
    • Sodium Na
    • Chlorine Cl
    • Magnesium Mg
    • Iron Fe
  55. what are the 9 trace elements?
    • Aluminum Al
    • Boron B
    • Chromium Cr
    • Cobalt Co
    • Copper Cu
    • Fluorine F
    • Iodine I
    • Manganese Mn
    • Zinc Zn
  56. what is the %, what does it contain, and what's its function?
    OXYGEN
    65%, part of water & many organic (carbon containing) molecules
  57. what is the %, what does it contain, and what's its function?
    HYDROGEN
    9.5%, constituent of water & most organic molecules, ionized form (H+) makes body fluids more ACIDIC
  58. what is the %, what does it contain, and what's its function?
    NITROGEN
    3.2%, component of ALL proteins & nucleic acids- the products of protein breakdown the blood are named in a blood value called Blood Urea
  59. what is the %, what does it contain, and what's its function?
    CARBON
    18.5%, forms backbone chains and rings of ALL organic molecules : carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  60. define MOLECULE
    2 or more atoms sharing electrons joined by a chemical bond, can be atoms of the same or different elements
  61. define COMPOUND
    molecule that contains atoms of different elements
  62. name the 3 states of matter found in the human body
    • solid
    • liquid
    • gas
  63. describe characteristics associated with: SOLIDS
    • definite shape
    • definite volume
    • rigidly clinging, tightly packed
    • very slight compressibility
  64. describe characteristics associated with:
    LIQUIDS
    • indefinite shape
    • definite volume
    • mobile, adhering
    • slight compressibility
  65. describe characteristics associated with:
    GASES
    • indefinite shape
    • indefinite volume
    • independent of each other and relativel far apart
    • high compressibility
  66. Describe ENERGY CONSERVATION
    Energy cannot be created, destroyed, or lost; total energy of a closed system is a constant
  67. Describe POTENTIAL ENERGY
    Stored energy that is not yet able to do work (ex: taking a lift to top of ski slope and look down)
  68. Describe KINETIC ENERGY
    Energy of movement (ex: when you begin to slide down the hill)
  69. Describe ENDERGONIC and what’s another name for it?
    Reactions that store energy, the energy is hidden within these chemical bonds—it’s also called anabolic reactions
  70. Describe EXERGONIC and what’s another name for it?
    Reaction when chemical bonds are broken, this energy is released—it’s also called catabolic
  71. Describe ENTROPY
    DISORDER, as particles move, they bounce around and distribute themselves all over, if we want to decrease entropy we have to do work, we have to expend energy - TO OVERCOME ENTROPY, IT REQUIRES ENERGY, ABSENCE OF ENERGY IS ENTROPY…
  72. Describe DIFFUSION
    It’s a kind of entropy, particles in a container will eventually distribute themselves all over the container, if no barrier, substances always move from where they are at a HIGH CONCENTRATION to where they are at LOW CONCENTRATION
  73. Explain the principle of SPECIFIC HEAT
    The amount of energy it takes to raise 1 gram of substance 1 degree Celsius of temperature, specific heat of water=1.000
  74. Order substances from better heat insulators to better heat conductors:
    Water, ethyl alcohol, ice, aluminum, iron, copper, gold, lead
  75. Define CALORIE for both PHYSICS AND NUTRITION
    1000 specific heat calories (cal)=1 food calorie (Cal), we can turn food into work using exergonic reactions
  76. Chemical symbol for: aluminum
    Al
  77. Chemical symbol for: boron
    B
  78. Chemical symbol for: chromium
    Cr
  79. Chemical symbol for: cobalt
    Co
  80. Chemical symbol for: Copper
    Cu
  81. Chemical symbol for: fluorine
    F
  82. Chemical symbol for: iodine
    I
  83. Chemical symbol for: manganese
    Mn
  84. Chemical symbol for: Molybdenum
    Mo
  85. Chemical symbol for: Selenium
    Se
  86. Chemical symbol for: Silicon
    Si
  87. Chemical symbol for: tin
    Sn
  88. Chemical symbol for: vanadium
    V
  89. Chemical symbol for: Zinc
    Zn
  90. Discuss how elements are arranged on the periodic table
    • Elements on the left side (2/3) are “metals”
    • elements on the right side are “non-metals”
    • farthest right column are “noble gases”
    • there are elements that share metal and non-metal properties called METALLOIDS
  91. describe the charge, mass, and relative location of ELECTRONS
    • negatively charged
    • mass-0.0005 (small and light) Daltons
    • responsible for chemical properties ability to form bonds, valence/ charge
    • surround nucleus of atom
  92. describe the charge, mass, and relative location of PROTONS
    • positively charged, large particles
    • mass- 1.007 Daltons
    • part of the nucleus
  93. describe the charge, mass, and relative location of NEUTRONS
    • no charge, large particles
    • mass- 1.009 Daltons
    • part of nucleus
  94. define NUCLEAR FISSION
    when the nucleus breaks apart
  95. name the properties of WATER that are important for an understanding of physiology
    • water molecules are held together by polar covalent bonds (unequal sharing of electrons)
    • can represent as either shell or space-filling model
    • water is more dense as a liquid
    • near universal solvent (it dissolves stuff)
    • forms hydrogen bonds between molecules
    • splits to form H+ & OH- ions
  96. explain the properties of SURFACE TENSION
    • strong attraction between water molecules means that water molecules attract each other strongly
    • makes rounded surfaces as the cohesion between water molecules tries to pull the water into a ball (forms a dome over rim)
  97. SURFACTANTS associated with SURFACE TENSION
    • ex: detergents (soap)
    • named because they reduce surface tension in water
    • one end of a surfactant molecule likes grease, the other end likes water
  98. state why SURFACTANT is necessary for proper lung function
    • secreted by cells in the lung reduces surface tension
    • keeps delicate structure of the lung from collapsing
    • without surfactant lungs cannot inflate
  99. explain the properties of CAPILLARY ACTION
    • surface tension + attraction between glass and water
    • if the tube is narrow, then water is pulled into the tube
    • ADHESIVE FORCES
  100. define SOLUTION
    substance called the SOLVENT dissolves another substance called the SOLUTE
  101. define SOLUTE
    the solute is what is being dissolved
  102. define SOLVENT
    the liquid that is dissolving the solute
  103. define MOLE
    • convenient way of counting large #'s of small things
    • AW(ave weight)g/1L=1M
  104. define COLLOID
    solid particles are larger, scatter light
  105. SOLUTIONS
    always clear
  106. what is an example of solution, colloid, emulsion, and suspension?
    BLOOD
  107. COLLOIDS
    translucent or opaque (merky)
  108. EMULSIONS
    always opaque
  109. SUSPENSIONS
    muddy water
  110. define COLLOID SUSPENSION
    particles stay dispersed and settle
  111. define EMULSION
    • ex: milk (lipids and proteins)
    • colloid where all components are liquid
  112. define ACID
    substance that dissolves in water- releasing H+ as a cation- to form 1 or more H+ and 1 or more anions
  113. define BASE
    substance that dissolves in water to form 1 or more OH- ions and 1 or more cations
  114. explain what a SALT is
    substance that dissolves in water and releases ions
  115. give a physiologically significant example of SALT
    NaCl, KCL, & CaCO3
  116. define STRONG ACID/ BASE
    • because practically all molecules break apart
    • ex: strong acid HCl
    • ex: strong base KOH
  117. define WEAK ACID/ BASE
    not all ions are release
  118. define a BUFFER
    acts as a H+ and/or OH- "sponge" so that pH is kept relatively constant
  119. BUFFER FORMULA
    H2O + CO2 <-> H2CO3 <->H++ HCO3-
  120. CO2
    carbon dioxide
  121. H2CO3
    carbonic acid
  122. H+
    hydrogen ion
  123. HCO3-
    bicarbonate ion
  124. define pH
    • -log[H+]
    • negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
  125. finding the pH value
    • OH- - take the exponent and subtract from 14 (BASIC)
    • H+ - it is the exponent (ACIDIC)
  126. pH value of BLOOD
    7.35-7.45

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