Medical Terms

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Medical Terms
2012-01-25 12:12:08
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study guide chapter 6
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  1. Pyrosis
  2. seps/o
  3. nect/o
    to bind, tie, connect
  4. arthr/o
  5. PEG
    percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
  6. Hemoptysis
    coughing up blood or bloody sputum from lungs or airway
  7. CAT
    computerized axial tomography
  8. Jejunojejunostomy
    anastomsis between 2 portions of the jejunum
  9. Lympphagiectasis
    means dilation of a lymph vessel
  10. Dyspepsia
    pain, difficult or disturbed digestion
  11. Plyoric Stenosis
    a narrowing of the pylorus, the opening from the stomach into the small intestine.
  12. stool guaiac
    finds hidden (occult) blood in the stool (bowel movement), even when you cannot see the blood yourself.
  13. mal/o
  14. esophagel atresia
    • Esophageal
    • atresia is a disorder of the digestive system in which the esophagus
    • does not develop properly. The esophagus is the tube that normally
    • carries food from the mouth to the stomach.
  15. splenorrhagia
    hemorrhage from ruptured spleen
  16. lipase
    anyenzymes that catalyzes the cleavage of a factty acid anion from triglyceride/ phospholipid
  17. palatoplasty
    surgery of the paate to restore function
  18. transheptic cholangiography
    • is an x-ray test used to identify obstructions either in the liver or
    • bile ducts that slow or stop the flow of bile from the liver to the
    • digestive system.
  19. eructation
    the act or an instance of belching
  20. polypectomy
    excision of a polyp
  21. blepharoplasty
    cosmetic removeal of fat deposit, excess tissue, or muscle from the eyelid
  22. splenomegaly
    enlargement of the spleen
  23. atresia
    congenital absence or closer of a normal body opening or tubular structure
  24. -rrhea
    flow; discharge
  25. -stenosis
    tightening; stricture
  26. paracentesis
    removal of fluid from the abdomen
  27. gingivectomy
    surgical removal of gum tissue/ gum resection
  28. sialolithiasis
    formation or presence of salivart calculus
  29. cholecystojejunostomy
    anastomosis of the gallbladder and jejunum.
  30. odynophagia
    a dysphagia in which swallowing causes pain
  31. dentalgia
  32. barium swallow
    Barium is used to coat the throat in order to take x-ray pictures of the tissues lining the throat.
  33. GB
  34. menorrhagia
    excessively heavy menstrual flow with ctcles of normal length (hypermenorrhea)
  35. -rrhaphy
  36. NPO
    nothing by mouth
  37. pyorrhea
    inflammation of gums and tooth sockets
  38. dysmenorrhea
    occurrance of painful crapms during menstration
  39. -orexia
  40. hematochezia
    passage of bloody stools
  41. herpetic stomatitis
    a form of inflammation of the mouth caused by a herpesvirus infection, also characterized by ulcers
  42. hemostasis
    the stopping of bleeding or blood flow through blood vessel or organs
  43. flatus
    gas generated in or expelled from the digestive track
  44. glycolysis
    breakdown of glucose and other sugars that release energy in the form of ATP
  45. BM
    bowel movement
  46. proptosis
    forward displacement of an organ, especially an eyeball
  47. -sclerosis
    to split
  48. UGI
    upper gastrointestinal
  49. hepatomalacia
    softening of the liver
  50. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  51. oligodontia
    presence of fewwer than the normal # of teeth
  52. polyphagia
    excessive eating; gluttony
  53. euthanasia
    easy/ painless dealth mercy killing
  54. exodontics
    the dental specialty dealing with toth extraction
  55. proctosigmoidoscopy
    direct inspection fo the rectum and the sugmiod colon using a sigmoldoscope
  56. dehiscence
    rupture or splitting open, surgical wonund structure to discharge it contents
  57. NG Tube
    nasotracheal tube an endotracheal tube that passes through the nose
  58. colectomy
    surgical relmoval of part or all of the colon
  59. LFT
    liver function test, ALK phos, bilirubin, AST, ALT
  60. cholelithiasis
    the presentce or formation of gallstones
  61. IBD
    inflammatory bowel disease (crohn disease and ulcerative colitis)
  62. cholangiectasis
    dilation of a bile duct
  63. hemolysis
    destrction or dissolution of red blood cells with subsequetn release of hemoglobin
  64. ab-
    away from
  65. peritonitis
    inflammatin of the membrain which lines the inside of the abdomen and all the organs
  66. liver biopsy
    removal of liver tissue for microscopic examination
  67. rhinoplasty
    pastic surgery of the nose
  68. palatoplasty
    plastic operation for closing a fissure in hard palate
  69. -ptysis
  70. -chalasia
  71. gloss/o
  72. gastroscopy
    an endoscope that is unserted through the mouth used for examing the interior stomach
  73. Mort/o
  74. ultrasonography
    sound wave beams that produce and image
  75. sarc/o
  76. dialysis
    • the process of separating macromolecules from ions and low
    • molecular weight compounds in solution by the difference in their rates
    • of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane, through which
    • crystalloids pass readily but colloids pass slowly or not at all.
  77. TURP
    transurethral resection of the prostate
  78. Meta-
    change; beyond
  79. serum
    • 1 also called blood serum. Any serous fluid that moistens the surfaces of serous membranes. 2 any clear watery fluid that has been separated from its more solid elements, such as the exudate from a blister. 3 the
    • clear, thin, and sticky fluid part of the blood that remains after
    • coagulation. Serum contains no blood cells, platelets, or fibrinogen. 4 a vaccine or toxoid prepared from the serum of a hyperimmune donor for prophylaxis against a particular infection or poison.
  80. splenic flexure
    • the left flexure of the colon as it bends at the junction of the
    • transverse and descending segments of the colon, near the spleen
  81. -lysis
    breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
  82. enter/o
    intestines (usually small intestine)
  83. cholangi/o
    bile; vessel
  84. brady-
  85. tracheoesophageal fistula
    • Tracheoesophageal fistula
    • (TEF) is commonly a birth defect, with the trachea connected to the
    • esophagus. In most cases, the esophagus is discontinuous, causing
    • immediate feeding difficulties. TEFs may develop in adult life,
    • secondary to the invasion of cancer
    • in the area. In addition, TEFs may be deliberately constructed with
    • surgery to aid talking in a patient who has the larynx removed (a laryngectomy).
  86. -um
    structure; tissue; thing
  87. pyloromyotomy
    incision of the logitutdinal and circular mscles of the pylorus
  88. autopsy
    • An autopsy is a postmortem assessment or
    • examination of a body to determine the cause of death. An autopsy is
    • performed by a physician trained in pathology.
  89. gastric endoscopy
    • An endoscope is a flexible fiberoptic scope with a light that helps a
    • physician see inside certain internal organs. When the scope is
    • inserted through the mouth, the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and
    • upper duodenum can be visually examined for any abnormalities or
    • growths. A biopsy can be taken through the endoscope of any suspicous
    • areas that are seen.
  90. -penia
  91. scintiscan
    • a two-dimensional representation of the radiation emitted by a
    • radioisotope, revealing its concentration in specific organs or tissues.
  92. -rrhagia
    bursting forth (of blood)
  93. hemoptysis
    • Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or bloody sputum from the lungs
    • or airway. It may be either self-limiting or recurrent. Massive
    • hemoptysis is defined as 200-600 mL of blood coughed up within a period
    • of 24 hours or less
  94. cecal volvulus
    • a type of colonic volvulus consisting of twisting or displacement and
    • anomalous rotation of the cecum, such as in volvulus neonatorum or
    • Ladd's syndrome. It can cause obstruction
  95. aphthous stomatitis
    A specific type of stomatitis presenting with shallow, painful ulcers. Also known as canker sores.
  96. cheilosis
    • fissuring and dry scaling of the vermilion surface of the lips and
    • angles of the mouth, a characteristic of riboflavin deficiency.
  97. -physis
    to grow
  98. -ase
  99. percutaneous liver biopsy
    • Percutaneous liver biopsy is a procedure in which a long needle is
    • introduced through the skin, subcutaneous tissues, intercostal muscles,
    • and peritoneum into the liver to obtain a specimen of liver tissue.[1, 2] This
    • procedure is usually performed on an outpatient basis. The patient is
    • then observed for a few hours in the hospital or the ambulatory unit.
  100. hemiglossectomy
    surgical removal of one half of the tongue
  101. endotracheal intubation
    • The passage of a tube through the nose or
    • mouth into the trachea for maintenance of the airway, as during the
    • administration of anesthesia