APUSH Chapters 8-9 Vocabulary

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APUSH Chapters 8-9 Vocabulary
2012-01-25 12:45:10
APUSH Chapters Vocabulary

APUSH Chapters 8-9 Vocabulary
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  1. Annapolis Convention
  2. · Convention of state delegates at Annapolis, Maryland, that issued a call in September 1786 for a convention to meet at Philadelphia to consider fundamental changes
    · Happened after the 1785 meeting at George Washington’s home in Mount Vernon that was attended by representatives of states
  3. Alexander Hamilton
  4. · First Secretary of Treasury after being appointed by George Washington
    • · Proposed the federal assumption of state debts, the establishment of a national bank, and the federal stimulation of industry through excise tax and tarrifs
    • · Opponents, including Jefferson, saw his programs as aiding a small, elite group at the expense of the average citizen
    • · Hamilton died from wounds sustained in a pistol duel with Aaron Burr, Jefferson’s vice president
    • · Federalist
    • · He, John Jay, and James Madison wrote The Federalist Papers in a New York newspaper which presentment cogent reasons for believing in the practicality of each major provision of the Constitution
    • · His plan wanted to put the U.S. finances on a firm and stable foundation
    • · Proposed the following remedies for the government’s financial plight
    • o Pay off the national debt at face value and have the federal government assume the war debts of the states
    • o Protect the young nation’s “infant” industries and collect adequate revenues at the same time by imposing high tariffs on imported goods
    • o Create a national bank for depositing government funds and for printing banknotes that would provide the basis for a stable U.S. currency
    • o Supported mainly from northern merchants who would gain directly from high tariffs and a stabilized currency
    • o Ideas that were used by Congress from his rememdies included the debt, tariffs and excise taxes and the national bank
    • · Persuaded Congress to pass excise taxes, especially on whiskey
    • · Was in command of 15,000 state militia-men after Washington placed them there
    • · Assisted George Washington in writing his farewell address for publication in newspapers
  5. Great Compromise
  6. · Called for a bicameral legistlative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress
    • · Combined pieces of the New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan, and other proposals
    • · Included the Three-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for purposes of apportioning representation and called for direct taxation on the states
  7. George Washington
  8. · First President of the United States of America
    • · Was unanimously elected
    • · Served two terms from 1789-1797
    • · His leadership led to a standard of a strong presidency with control of foreign policy and the power to veto Congress’s legislation
    • · Declared the Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793, keeping the United States neutral in the European wars
    • · His Farewell Address in 1796 warned against entangling alliances, recommended isolationism, and warned of political party factions
    • · Supported mostly the Federalists
  9. Judiciary Act of 1789
  10. · Provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associates
    • · Established the office of the Attorney General
    • · Created federal district courts and circuit courts
  11. Commerce Compromise
  12. · Allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, include placing tarrifs (taxes) on foreign imports, but it prohibited placing taxes on any exports
  13. Judicial Review (Marbury v Madison) 1803
  14. · William Marbury had been commissioned justice of the peace in D.C. by President John Adams
    • · His commission was part of Adams’ “midnight appointments” during his last days in office
    • · Marbury’s commission was not delivered so he sued President Jefferson’s Secretary of State, James Madison
    • · Chief Justice John Marshall held that while Marbury was entitled to the commission, the statute that allowed Marbury’s remedy was unconstitutional, as it granted the Supreme Court powers beyond what the Constitution permitted
    • · This decision paved the way for judicial review, which gave courts the power to declare statutes unconstitutional
  15. James Madison
  16. · Fourth President of the United States of America
    • · His work before becoming president led him to be considered the “Father of the Constitution”
    • · Participated in the writing of The Federalist Papers
    • · In Congress, he wrote the Virginia Plan
    • · Was a Republican president in a Federalist-controlled Congress
    • · Faced pressure from “War Hawks” like Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun to get involved in the Napoleonic Wars and end the damaging embargo
    • · Led the United States into the War of 1812 and concluded the war in 1814
  17. Checks and Balances
  18. · One branch of government having sufficient power to check the others
    · Formed by James Madison and other convention delegates
  19. Tariff of 1789
  20. · Was passed by Congress in 1789
    • · Apart from a few selected industries, this first tariff passed by Congress was intended to raise revenue and not protect American manufacturers from foreign competition
    • · Was a compromise between advocates of protective tariffs
  21. Bill of Rights
  22. · Anti-Federalists were very persistent in having a Bill of Rights listed in the Constitution and this was the only way to convince Anti-Federalists to ratify the Constitution
    • · Federalists argued that since members of Congress would be elected by the people, they did not need to be protected against themselves and all rights were protected
    • · Federalists finally promised to add a bill of rights to the Constitution as the first order of business of a newly elected Congress
    • o 1st-Separation of church and state
    • o 2nd-People have the right to keep and bear arms in a state militia
    • o 3rd-People can’t be required to quarter soldiers
    • o 4th-Government can’t unreasonably search or seize people’s property
    • o 5th-No individual can be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. No defendant may be forced to give evidence
    • o 6th-Everyone gets public trial and call and question witnesses
    • o 7th-Citizens have the right to trial by jury
    • o 8th-No excessive bail and fines or cruel or unusual punishment to accused or acquitted
    • o 9th-Any rights that are not specifically mention in the Constitution are also guaranteed
    • o 10th-All powers not delegated to the federal government belong to the states or to the people
  23. XYZ Affair
  24. o 1798
    • o The U.S. wanted an end to French harassment of American shipping
    • o To settle the issue, French representatives demanded a bribe from the U.S. just to open negotiations with French Minister Talleyrand
    • o The U.S. refused the bribe and suspended trade with the French
    • o Led to the creation of the American Navy
  25. The Federalist Papers
    • o 85 highly persuasive essays written for a New York newspaper
    • o Written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison

    o Presented cogent reasons for believing in the practicality of each major provision of the Constitution
  26. Assumption Bill
  27. o A bill passed by the federal government in 1789 to assume the debt of each state.
  28. Whiskey Rebellion
  29. o Western whiskey farmers refused to pay taxes on which Hamilton’s revenue program was based
    • o A group of farmers who terrorized the tax collectors, and Washington responded with a federalized militia
    • o George Washington and Alexander Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania themselves to emphasize their commitment
    • o First test of federal authority
    • o Established federal government’s rights to enforce laws
  30. Treaty of Greenville
  31. o Alleghenies surrendered claims to the Ohio Territory
    • o Promised to open it up to settlement
    • o Took place after the Battle of Fallen Timbers
  32. French Revolution
  33. o A period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe
    • o Absolute monarchy collapsed
    • o Napoleon started to come to power during this time
  34. Intercourse Act
  35. o Basic law passed by Congress in 1790 which stated that the United States would regulate trade an interaction with Indian tribes
  36. Jay's Treaty
  37. o 1794
    • o An attempt to settle the conflict between the U.S. and England over commerce, navigation , and violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1783
    • o Provided for eventual evacuation by the British of their posts in the Northwest, but it allowed them to continue their fur trade
    • o Allowed for the establishment of commissions to settle United States-Canadian border disputes and United States-Britain losses during the Revolutionary War
    • o The generous terms to Britain upset Americans because these were promises that had been made and not fulfilled in the Treaty of Paris of 1783
  38. Pickney's Treaty
  39. o 1795
    • o Signed by the U.S. and Spain
    • o Free navigation of the Mississippi River was given to the United States
    • o United States gained areas north of Florida that had been in dispute
    • o Gave western farmers the “right of deposit” in New Orleans, enabling them to use the port for their goods and making it easier for them to get their goods to the east
  40. Benjamin Franklin
  41. o Signed Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Treaty of Alliance with France, and Treaty of Paris
    • o Served as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention in 1787
    • o Held an honorary position and seldom engaged in debate
  42. Proclamation of Neutrality 1793
  43. o Formal announcement issued by U.S. President George Washington
    • o April 33,1793
    • o Declaring the U.S. neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain
    • o Threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war
    • o Led to the Neutrality Act of 1794
  44. Alien and Sedition Acts
  45. o 1798-1799
    • o Legislation enacted by the Federalists to reduce foreign influences and increase their power
    • o New hurdles to citizenship were established
    • o Broadened power to quiet print media critics
    • o The legislation was used to silence Jeffersonian Republican critics of the Federalists and was indicative of the poisoned relations between the two groups
    • o These acts tested the strength of the First Amendment and limited the freedom of the press
    • o The Federalists gained a reputation of being a less democratic group, quickening their demise as a political organization
  46. Constitution Convention
  47. o Article V Convention
    • o 2/3rd of each house of congress
    • o Came together to propose amendments to the U.S. Constitution
  48. Quasi War
  49. o Undeclared naval war of 1797 to 1800 between the United States and France
  50. John Adams
  51. o Second President of the United States of America
    • o First Vice President under President George Washington
    • o Served from 1797-1800
    • o Diplomat and signer of the Declaration of Independence
    • o Led the country through the XYZ affair, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    • o Kept the nation from war during his tenure as president
  52. Thomas Jefferson
  53. o Third President of the United States of America
    • o Served from 1801-1809
    • o Author of the Declaration of Independence
    • o Before becoming president, served as the first Secretary of State under George Washington
    • o First president to reside in Washington D.C.
    • o Jefferson’s taking of office was called the “Revolution of 1800” as it was the first time America had changed presidential political leadership (Federalist to Jeffersonian Republican”
    • o His embodiment of the Jeffersonian Republican Party helped increase its strength while weak leadership in the Federalist Party was a reason for its demise
    • o His administration was responsible for the Embargo of 1807
    • o He presided over the Louisiana Purchase
    • o His politics were characterized by support of states’ rights
  54. Naturalization Act
  55. o Increased from five to 14, the number of years for immigrants to qualify for U.S. citizenship because most immigrant voted Democratic-Republicans
    o One of the laws that the Federalist adopted from the Alien and Sedition Acts
  56. First National bank
    • o Was established after George Washington used what Alexander Hamilton said
    • o Could print paper currency
    • o Use federal deposits to stimulate business
    • o Privately owned
    • o Chartered by the federal government
  57. Battle of Fallen Timbers
  58. o 1794
    • o U.S. Army led by General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnee,, Wyandot, and other Native American peoples
    • o In northwestern Ohio
    • o Helped let the federal government gain control vast tracts of land in the west
  59. Judith Sargent Murray
  60. o Born into an elite merchant family in Gloucester, MA
    • o Became a wife, mother, poet, essayist, playwright, novelist, and historian
    • o Published an essay in 1779 on the equality of the sexes that distinguished her as the first avowed feminist in American history
  61. Public Land Act
  62. o 1796
    • o Congress recommended that land be marked in areas shaped like squares
    • o Tried to make land measuring more precise
  63. John Jay
  64. o Member of First and Second Continental Congress
    • o Negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jay’s Treaty
    • o First Chief Justice of Supreme Court
    • o Wrote portions of The Federalist Papers
  65. Federalist
  66. o Americans who advocated centralized power and constitutional ratification
    • o Used The Federalist Papers to demonstrate how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power
    • o Supporters of Federalist platforms, included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay and northeastern business groups
    • o Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the Constitution (they had a “loose interpretation of the Constitution)
  67. Anti-Federalist Papers
  68. o A collection of 85 articles, written in opposition of the ratification of the Constitution
    • o Mostly written under pen names
    • o Authors include Cato (George Clinton), Brutus (Robert Yates) , Centinel (Samuel Bryan and the Federal Farmer (M.Smith/Richard Henry Lee/Mercy Otis Warren)
  69. Republican Principles
  70. o Foreign policy issues were central
    • o Strict construction of the Constituion
    • o Promoted States’ Rights
    • o Opposed Federalist policies like high tariffs, a navy, military spending, a national debt, and a national bank
  71. Separation of Powers
  72. Power was given to three separate branches in state government
    • o Executive Branch
    • o Legislative Branch
    • o Judicial Branch
    • o Safeguard against tyranny
  73. Federalism
  74. o The sharing of powers between the national government and the states
  75. Causes of the War of 1812
  76. o British impressments of American sailors
    • o The U.S. suspected the British of encouraging Native American rebellion
    • o “War Hawk” Congressional leaders, such as Henry Clay and John Calhoun, pressed for intervention
    • o American frontiersmen wanted more free land, as the West was held by Native Americans and the British
    • o War Hawks also wanted to annex Canada and Florida
    • o Despite the Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse Act, hostilities could not be cooled
    • o Eventually, the U.S. sided with France against Britain
  77. War of 1812
  78. o Early victories at sea by the U.S. before it was overpowered by the British
    • o The U.S.’s Admiral Perry took Lake Erie with the navy
    • o Opened the way for William Henry Harrison to invade Canada and defeat the British and Native American forces
    • o Andrew Jackson led the American charge through the Southwest
    • o The Battle of New Orleans was a decisive conflict in which Andrew Jackson defeated the British; the battle was fought after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent
  79. After the War of 1812
  80. o Increased American nationalism
    • o Created high foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco
    • o The country turned from its agrarian origins toward industrialization
    • o Led to a depression in 1819 due to influx of British goods; and the Bank of the United States responded by tightening credit to slow inflation
  81. John Dickinson
  82. o American lawyer and politician from Philadelphia, PA and Wilmington, Delaware
    • o A militia officer during the American Revolution
    • o A Continental Congressman from Pennsylvania and Delaware
    • o A delegate to the U.S. Constitution Convention of 1787
    • o President of Delaware and President of Pennsylvania
    • o “Penman of the Revolution” for his Letters for a Farmer in Pennsylvania
    • o Jefferson said he was…”among the first of the advocates for the rights of his country when assailed by Great Britain whose name will be there in history as one of the great worthies of the revolution.”
  83. Embargo Act
  84. o Act passed by Congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving for any foreign port
    • o Designed by Jefferson and Madison to protect American interest and avoid war
    • o Helped cause the War of 1812 between the U.S. and Britain
  85. Gouverneur Morris
  86. o Conservative
    o Helped produce a document that reflected Whig principles while still appealing to the people in New York during the constitutional convention of 1777
  87. Henry Knox
  88. o Washington appointed him the Secretary of War
    • o Oversaw the military during the Northwest Indian War
    • o Formally responsible for the nation’s relationships with the Indian population in the territories it claimed
  89. House of Representatives and Senate
  90. o Legislative Branch
    • o Bicameral Legislature
    • o Powers and composition of the House of Reps. are established in Article 1 of the Constitution
    • o Pass federal legislation that affects the entire country
    • o House of Reps-Population (max 437)
    • o Senate-2 per state
  91. Funding Bill
  92. o Hamilton’s proposal that state government would pay war debt and nation government would pay national debt
  93. Edmund Randolph
  94. o Seventh Governor of Virginia
    • o First United States Attorney General in 1789 under George Washington
    • o Succeeded Jefferson as Secretary of State in 1793 under George Washington
    • o One of the eleven delegates to represent Virginia at the Continental Congress
    • o Introduced the Virginia Plan as a new national government
  95. Electoral College
  96. o Consists of the electors appointed by each state who formally elect the President and the Vice President
    • o Article 2, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution specifies how many electors each state should have and how they should be decided
    • o U.S. territories are not represented
    • o An example of an indirect election
  97. Pan Indian Military Resistance
  98. o Formed because the Natives were extremely angry about the Treaty of Greenville
    • o Unified the tribes throughout the West to take a stand and resist to give anything up for the white invaders
    • o Tired of being taken advantage of
  99. Tecumseh
  100. o Was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy
    • o Opposed the United States during Tecumseh’s War and the War of 1812
    • o Icon and heroic figure in American Indian and Canadian history
    • o Allied with the British and helped capture Fort Detroit
    • o Killed in the Battle of the Thames in October 1813
  101. Revolution/Election of 1800
  102. o Vice President Jefferson defeated President John Adams
    • o Bitter rematch of the 1796 election between the pro-French and the pro-decentralized Republicans against pro-British and pro-centralization Federalists
    • o Federalists were disorganized
    • o Republicans were organized
    • o House of Reps elected Jefferson