Admin Test 3

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Admin Test 3
2010-04-04 16:31:08
Admin Chapters 7 10

Administration Test 3, Whittington
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  1. What are the different symptoms of stress?
    (Psychological symptoms)
    • increased tension
    • anxiety
    • boredom
    • procrastination
  2. What are the different symptoms of stress?
    (behavior-related symptoms)
    • changes in eating habits
    • increased smoking
    • substance consumption
    • rapid speech
    • sleep disorders
  3. How to reduce stress:
    • Person-job fit concerns
    • Employee assistance Programs (EAPs)
    • Wellness programs
  4. How can you stimulate innovation?
    • creativity
    • acceptance of ambiguity
    • tolerance of impractical
    • low external controls
    • tolerance of risk
    • focus on ends rather than on means
    • open systems focus
  5. external forces of change
    • marketplace competition
    • governmental laws and regulations
    • new technologies
    • labor market shifts
    • cycles in the economy
    • social change
  6. internal forces of change
    • strategy modifications
    • new equipment
    • new processes
    • workforce composition
    • restructured jobs
    • compensation and benefits
    • labor surpluses and shortages
    • employee attitudes
  7. Three categories of change:
    • Structure
    • Technology
    • People
  8. Techniques for reducing resistance to change
    • education and communication- when resistance is due to misinformation
    • participation- when resisters have the expertise to make a contribution
    • facilitation and support- when resisters are fearful and anxiety-ridden
    • negotiation- necessary when resistance comes from a powerful group
    • manipulation- when a powerful group's cooperation and application of threats
    • coercion- when a powerful group's endorsement is needed
  9. Sources of stress
    • constraints- barriers that keep us from doing what we desire
    • demands- cause persons to give up something they desire
  10. Type A Personality
    people who have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitive drive
  11. Type B Personality
    People who are relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily
  12. What should you know about attitudes when trying to understand employees?
    • cognitive component- beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person
    • affective component- emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude
    • behavioral component- an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
    • C.A.B.
  13. Components of the Big Five Model of personality:
    • Extroversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Conscientiousness
    • Emotional Stability
    • Openness to Experience
  14. Extroversion
    personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is sociable, talkative, and assertive.
  15. Agreeableness
    a personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting
  16. Conscientiousness
    describes the degree to which someone is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented
  17. emotional stability
    • degree to which someone is
    • calm
    • enthusiastic
    • secure (positive) or tense
    • nervous
    • depressed
    • insecure(negative)
  18. openness to experience
    • whether a person is
    • imaginative
    • artistically sensitive
    • intellectual
  19. Emotional intelligence
    assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures
  20. Dimensions of Emotional intelligence
    • self-awareness of own feelings
    • self-management of own emotions
    • self-motivation in face of setbacks
    • empathy for others' feelings
    • social skills to handle others' emotions
  21. Perception
    process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
  22. Influences on Perception
    • Personal characteristics
    • target characteristics
  23. Influences on Perception
    Personal characteristics
    • attitudes
    • personality
    • motives
    • interests
    • past experiences
    • expectations
  24. Influences on Perception
    Target characteristics
    • relationship of a target to its background
    • closeness and/or similarity to other things
    • the context in objects is seen
    • other situational factors
  25. How do people learn?
    • Operant Conditioning- consequences, reinforcement, rewards
    • Social Learning Theory- observation
    • Modeling
  26. How do people shape behavior?
    • positive reinforcement
    • negative reinforcement
    • punishment
    • extinction
  27. What are the different stages of team development?
    • 1. Forming
    • 2. Storming
    • 3. Norming
    • 4. Performing
    • 5. Adjourning
  28. 1. Forming

    team experiences uncertainty about its purpose, structure, and leadership
  29. 2. Storming
    intragroup conflict predominates within the group
  30. 3. Norming
    Close relationships develop and group members begin to demonstrate cohesiveness
  31. 4. Performing
    team develops a structure that is fully functional and accepted by team members
  32. Adjourning
    team prepares for its disbandment
  33. Work Groups
    Work Teams
    • work group- group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions that will help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility
    • work team- group that engages in collective work that requires joint effort and generates a positive synergy
  34. What do teams need?
    • clear expectations
    • common understanding of the team leader role
    • adequate resources
    • empowerment
    • feedback
    • importance and value
    • compatibility with each other
  35. What are challenges to creating team players?
    • -managers attempting to introduce teams into organization face the most difficulty
    • -when individual employee resistance to teams is strong
    • -where the national culture is individualistic rather than collectivist
    • -when an established organization places high values on and significantly rewards individual achievement
  36. How can you shape team behaviors?
    • proper selection- hire emp. who have both the technical skills and interpersonal skills required to fulfill team roles
    • employee training- provide training that involves emp. in learning the behaviors required to become team players
    • rewarding the appropriate team behaviors- create a reward system that encourages cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones
  37. How can you strengthen relationships?
    • develop atmosphere of trust and respect
    • maintain confidentiality
  38. What effect does diversity have on teams?
    • -fresh and multiple perspectives on issues help the team identify creative or unique solutions and avoid weak alternatives
    • -difficulty of working together may make it harder to unify a diverse team and reach agreements
    • -although diversity's advantages dissipate with time, the added-value of diverse teams increases as the team becomes more cohesive
  39. Need
    internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive
  40. Motivation
    willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need
  41. Levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    • self actualization
    • esteem
    • social
    • safety
    • physiological
  42. McClelland's Three-needs theory
    • Need for Achievement (nAch)
    • Need for Power (nPow)
    • Need for Affiliation (nAff)
  43. Need for Achievement
    the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed
  44. Need for Power
    the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
  45. Need for Affiliation
    The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
  46. Core Job Dimensions
    • skill variety
    • task identity
    • task significance
    • autonomy
    • feedback
  47. Skill Variety
    the degree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents
  48. Task Identity
    degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
  49. Task Significance
    degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people
  50. Autonomy
    degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out
  51. Feedback
    degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual's obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance
  52. Flexibility
    • -recognizing the different personal needs and goals of individuals
    • -providing a diversity of rewards to match the varied needs of employees
    • -being flexible in accommodating the cultural differences within a diverse workforce when attempting to motivate workers
  53. what are some work-life balance alternatives?
    • flex time- scheduling option that allows employees select what their work hours will be
    • job sharing- type part-time work that allows two or more workers to split a traditional 40-hour week
    • telecommuting- system of working at home on a computer that is linked to the office
  54. compensation alternatives
    • competency-based compensation
    • broad-banding
    • stock options
  55. competency-based compensation
    program that pays and rewards employees on the basis of skills, knowledge, or behaviors they possess
  56. broad-banding
    pre-set pay level, based on the degree to which competencies exist and allow an employee to contribute to the organization
  57. stock options
    program that allows employees to purchase company stock at a fixed price and profit when company performance increases its stock value
  58. How can entrepreneurs motivate employees?
    • -allowing them to complete whole job
    • -having emp. work together across departments and functions
    • -using participative decision making- emp. provide input into decisions
    • -delegating decisions and duties, turning over the responsibility
    • -redesigning their jobs so they have discretion over the way they do their work