Chapter 4

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Author:
dphill20
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130523
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Chapter 4
Updated:
2012-01-26 21:02:14
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Signs Symptoms Basic Examination Procedures Common Diagnostic Tests Radiology Treatment
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Medical Terminology
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  1. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Diagnosis
    is the identification of a disease or condition by a scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, tests, and procedures.
  2. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Prognosis
    means the predicted outcome of a disease.
  3. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Acute
    means having a short and relatively severe course.
  4. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Chronic
    The opposite of acute is chronic, meaning that the disease exists over a long time.
  5. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Signs
    are objective, or definitive, evidence of an illness or disordered function that are preceived by an examiner, such as fever, a rash, or evidence established by radiologic or laboratory testing.
  6. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Symptoms
    are subjective evidence as perceived by the patient, such as pain.
  7. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Clinical Studies
    e.g. measuring blood pressure
  8. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Laboratory Tests
    e.g. determination of blood gases
  9. Signs and Symptoms in Diagnosis

    Radiologic Studies
    e.g. x-ray image
  10. Basic Examination Procedures

    Vital signs
    are the measurements of pulse rate, respiration rate, and body temperature.
  11. Basic Examination Procedures

    Pulse
    is the rhythmic expansion of an artery that occurs as the heart beats; it may be felt with a finger.
  12. Basic Examination Procedures

    Respiration
    (or respiratory) rate is the number of breaths per minute.
  13. Basic Examination Procedures

    Body temperature
    can be measured through several routes, including the mouth, the rectum, under the armpit, and the external opening of the ear canal.
  14. Basic Examination Procedures

    Tympanic thermometer
    has a specially designed probe tip that is placed at the external opening of the ear canal.
  15. Basic Examination Procedures

    Blood pressure
    is the pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries and veins and on the chambers of the heart.
  16. Basic Examination Procedures

    Systolic pressure
    is the higher reading when taking blood pressure.
  17. Basic Examination Procedures

    Diastolic pressure
    is the lower reading when taking blood pressure.
  18. Basic Examination Procedures

    Inspection
    The examiner uses the eyes and ears to observe and listen to the patient.
  19. Basic Examination Procedures

    Palpation
    The examiner feels the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts with the hands.
  20. Basic Examination Procedures

    Percussion
    The examiner taps the body with the fingertips or fist to evaluate the size, borders, and consistency of internal organs and to determine the amount of fluid in a body cavity.
  21. Basic Examination Procedures

    Auscultation
    The examiner listens for sounds within the body to evaluate the heart, blood vessels, lungs, intestines, or other organs, or to detect the fetal heart sound.
  22. Common Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    Endoscope
    an illuminated instrument for the visualization of the interior of a body cavity or organ.

    The visual inspection of the body by means of an endoscope is endoscopy.
  23. Common Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    Catheter
    is a hollow flexible tube that can be inserted into a cavity of the body to withdraw or instill fluids, perform tests, or visualize a vessel or cavity.

    The introduction of a catheter is catheterization, and to introduce a catheter is to catheterize. The Latin term cannula is also used to mean a hollow flexible tube that is inserted into vessels or cavities.
  24. Diagnostic Radiology

    Invasive procedures
    require entry of a body cavity or interruption of normal body function.
  25. Diagnostic Radiology

    Computed Radiography
    the image data are digitized and immediately displayed on a monitor or recorded on film.
  26. Word Parts: Radiology

    ech/o, son/o
    sound
  27. Word Parts: Radiology

    electr/o
    electricity
  28. Word Parts: Radiology

    fluor/o
    emitting or reflecting light
  29. Word Parts: Radiology

    tom/o
    to cut
  30. Diagnostic Radiology

    Radiography
    was the predominant means of diagnostic imaging for many years, with x-rays providing film images of internal structures.
  31. Diagnostic Radiology

    Radiopaque
    Substances that do not permit the passage of x-rays are described as radiopaque.
  32. Diagnostic Radiology

    Radiolucent
    describes substances that readily permit the passage of x-rays.
  33. Diagnostic Radiology

    Computed tomography
    uses ionizing radiation to produce a detailed image of a cross section of tissue, similar to what one would see if the body or body part were actually cut into sections.
  34. Diagnostic Radiology

    Magnetic resonance imaging
    creates images of internal structures based on the magnetic properties of chemical elements within the body and uses a powerful magnetic field and radiowave pulses rather than ionizing radiation such as x-rays.
  35. Diagnostic Radiology

    Ultrasonography, diagnostic ultrasound, sonography, echography
    the process of imaging deep structures of the body by sending and receiving high frequency sound waves that are reflected back as echoes from tissue interfaces.

    The record produced is called a sonogram or an echogram.
  36. Diagnostic Radiology

    Fluoroscopy
    is the visual examination of an internal organ using a fluoroscope.
  37. Diagnostic Radiology

    Pharmaceuticals
    are medicinal drugs, and radiopharmaceuticals are those that are radioactive.
  38. Diagnostic Radiology

    Positron emission tomography (PET)
    combines tomography and radioactive substances to produce enhanced images of selected body structures, especially the heart, blood vessels, and the brain.
  39. Radiation and Other Therapeutic Interventions

    Radiotherapy
    The treatment of tumors using radiation to destroy cancer cells.

    Radiation therapy is also called radiation oncology.
  40. Word Parts: Treatment

    algesi/o
    sensitivity to pain
  41. Word Parts: Treatment

    chem/o
    chemical
  42. Word Parts: Treatment

    pharmac/o, pharmaceut/i
    drugs or medicine
  43. Word Parts: Treatment

    plast/o
    repair
  44. Word Parts: Treatment

    therapeut/o
    treatment
  45. Word Parts: Treatment

    tox/o
    poison
  46. Word Parts: Treatment

    -therapy
    treatment

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