Why does a live performance provide a special excitement?
Live performances provide special excitement. In a live performance, artists put themselves on the line; training and magnetism must overcome technical difficulties to involve the listener's emotions.
How do we find the singular "Truth" about a musical performance?
There is no one “truth” about what we hear and feel.
How do we enhance our ability to evaluate and enjoy music?
Alert and repeated listening will enhance our ability to compare performances and judge music so that we can fully enjoy it.
Why is John Cage's composition, 4' 33" particularly interesting?
A musician sits at a piano for 4 minutes and 33 seconds—and does nothing. The silence forces the people in the audience to direct their attention to whatever noises, or sounds, they themselves are making.
What is the brain's role in the perception of sound?
Impulses, or signals, are transmitted to the brain. There the impulses are selected, organized, and interpreted.
What determines the pitch of a sound?
The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of its vibrations—that is, their speed, which is measured in cycles per second.
The distance between two pitches is called an ______________.
The “distance” in pitch between any two tones is called an interval.
If a pitch has a frequency of 100 cycles per second, what is the frequency of the pitch one octave higher?
A pitch with 200 cycles per second is one octave higher than a pitch with a frequency of 100 cycles per second.
Into how many tones is an octave divided in the recent music of Western Civilization?
Recent music of Western Civilization is divided into 12 tones.
How many octaves is the pitch range of a piano?
A piano's range is over 7 octaves.
What family of instruments most often produce indefinite pitches?
Percussion instruments most often produce indefinite pitches.
What is dynamics in music? What is the purpose of dynamics?
Skillful, subtle changes of dynamics add spirit and mood to performances.
Emphasis of a single tone in a series of tones is called ____________.
Emphasis of a single tone in a series of tones is called accent.
How would a performer comply with the dynamic marking consisting of four "f"s.
Four “f”s symbolize the composer’s desire for extreme loudness.
What property of sound allows us to determine what made the sound?
Tone color allows us to determine what made a particular sound.
How many times do we hear the opening theme during track one of The Firebird?
The opening theme of The Firebird is played 6 more times at different dynamics.
How many seconds into The Firebird does the orchestra become suddenly soft?
The orchestra suddenly becomes soft 94 seconds into the song.
Describe how the use of a mute in C-Jam Blues by Duke Ellington changes the timbre of the cornet at 0:54.
The mute in C-Jam Blues helps to soften the sound of the Cornet. It also gives it a more “choppy sound”, meaning it doesn’t carry its notes out as it normally would.
What is unique about singing?
The singer becomes an instrument with a unique ability to fuse words and musical tones.
List three reasons it is difficult to sing well.
In singing we use wider ranges of pitch and volume than in speaking, and we hold vowel sounds longer. Singing demands a greater supply and control of breath.
List six vocal ranges.
Soprano, Mezzo-Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Baritone, and Bass are all vocal ranges.
Until about _____ years ago, most Western music was vocal.
Until the late 1600’s, most Western music was vocal. (About 300 years ago)
List six categories of instruments in Western music, giving at least two examples of each.(opportunity for extra credit)
String- examples: guitar and violin;Woodwind- examples: flute and clarinet; Percussion- examples: bass drum and cymbals; Keyboard- examples: organ and piano; Brass- examples: trumpet and trombone; electronic- examples: synthesizer and omnichord
What is the difference between orchestras and bands.
Modern symphony orchestras contain string, woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments. Keyboard instruments also find their way into the modern orchestra as needed. Bands consist mainly of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.
How many different ranges of saxophones are there?
There are 6 ranges of saxophones.
What is the approximate ratio of violins to violas represented in the large orchestra plan on page 11?
The ration of violins to violas is 3:1.
Study the picture labeled "a symphony orchestra" on page 10. How is this orchestra are very different from the orchestral plan on the same opening?
The orchestra pictured has less than 100 members, whereas the orchestral plan is for a large orchestra of about 100 instrumentalists.
List nine functions of musical instruments throughout history and around the world.
They may provide entertainment; they may accompany song, dance, ritual, and drama; they have sometimes been considered sacred or thought to have magical powers; they have been used for communication; and they have even been status symbols.
Give 3 reasons why orchestral composers rely on strings more than any other instrumental group?
Of all the instrumental groups, the strings have the greatest versatility and expressive range. They produce many tone colors and have wide ranges of pitch and dynamics. String players can produce tones that are brilliant and rapid or slow and throbbing; they can control tone as subtly as a singer. Even with their differing tone colors, the four string instruments blend beautifully.
How does a violinist change the pitch produced by his strings?
Each string is tuned to a different pitch by tightening or loosening the pegs.
List six effects a violinist can produce by using different techniques during performance.
Pizzicato (plucked string), Double stop (two notes at once), Vibrato, Mute, Tremolo, and Harmonics.
How much longer is the body of a violin than that of a viola.
The body of the viola is about two inches longer than that of the violin.
Traditionally, woodwind instrument were mostly made of _________.
Woodwind instruments were traditionally made of wood.
How does a woodwind player vary the pitch he is producing on his instrument?
All the woodwinds have little holes along their length that are opened and closed by the fingers or by pads controlled by a key mechanism. By opening and closing these holes, the woodwind player changes the length of the vibrating air column and so varies the pitch.
Name the flutist on p.16.
The flutist’s name is James Galway.
T/F The English Horn is neither English nor a horn.
Is the recorder a single-reed or double-reed instrument?
The recorder has no reed.
What causes the pitch to vary in a brass instrument?
The pitch of brass instruments is regulated both by varying lip tension and by using slides and valves to change the length of the tube through which the air vibrates.
How are brass sections most used by orchestral composers in their music?
They are most common in jazz, where they create a variety of effects, including a buzzing sound, a mellowing of the tone, and the comical “wah-wah.”
Which orchestral drums have definite pitch?
What has been the major role of percussion instruments for a long time?
Percussion instruments have long been used to emphasize rhythm and to heighten climaxes.
What is the particular advantage of keyboard instruments?
Keyboards permit the performer to play several tones at the same time easily and rapidly.
How long did it take to develop the early piano into the modern one we use today?
The piano was perfected in 150 years.
What instrument did the piano replace?
The harpsichord was replaced by the piano.
What has been called "The King of Instruments"?
The pipe organ has been called “The King of Instruments”.
List 7 tools used by electronic musicians.
the electric piano, organ, and guitar; tape studios; synthesizers; computers; and various “hybrid” technologies.
How many variation sections did Benjamin Britten use in our listening example on p.28?
Benjamin Britten used 13 variations.
Does the harp play one note or many notes at a time at 9:45?
The harp plays many notes at a time
How many times does the whip sound occur after 13:49
The whip sound occurs 3 times.
What is the essence of rhythm?
The essence of rhythm is a recurring pattern of tension and release, of expectation and fulfillment.
What does music that has barely noticeable beat suggest?
Sometimes it may be barely noticeable, suggesting feelings like floating or aimlessness.
What is the relationship between beat and rhythm?
Rhythm flows freely, sometimes matching the beat, sometimes not.
The organization of beats into regular groups is called ____________.
The organization of beats into regular groups is called meter.
When an accent occurs off-beat, it is called __________________.
When an accented note comes where we normally would not expect one, the effect is known as syncopation.
Arrange these tempo marking fastest to slowest:moderato, allegro, presto, adagio, andante
Presto, allegro, moderato, andante, adagio
gradual slowing down of tempo
Why use a metronome?
The metronome setting indicates the exact number of beats per minute.
What does a composer use if his notes are too high or low to be placed on the normal staff?
If a pitch falls above or below the range indicated by the staff, short, horizontal ledger lines are used.
What is the Grand Staff?
The grand staff is a combination of the treble and bass staves.
How many eighth notes would be played in the same length of time as a half note?
4 eighth notes would be played in the time of one half note.
What does placing a dot after a notehead mean?
Adding a dot to the right of a note increases its duration by half.
What do the two numbers of a time signature show?
The upper number tells how many beats fall in a measure; the lower number tells what kind of note gets the beat.
When the notes of a melody are performed smoothly, it is called _____________, whereas detached notes are _________________.
Sometimes they are sung or played in a smooth, connected style called legato. Or they may be performed in a short, detached manner called staccato.
What is a cadence?
A resting place at the end of a phrase—a point of arrival—is called a cadence.
A chord is a combination of three or more tones sounded at once.
T/F Consonance has it's resolution when it moves to a dissonance.
The main chord of a piece, built on the keynote, is called the _______________.
A triad built on the first, or tonic, note of the scale (do) is called the tonic chord (do-mi-sol); it is the main chord of a piece, the most stable and conclusive.
What is the overall mood of Chopin's Prelude in E Minor?
The overall mood is sad.
Where do the half-steps occur in the C major scale?
There are half steps between the tones E and F, and between B and C.
What advantage does using a key signature offer to a composer?
To indicate the key of a piece of music, the composer uses a key signature.
Between which pairs of notes do half-steps occur in a chromatic scale?
Unlike those of the major or minor scales, tones of the chromatic scale are all the same distance apart, one half step.
Shifting from one key to another within the same piece is called modulation.
List three basic textures of music.
Monophonic, polyphonic, and homophonic
The technique of combining several melodies into a meaningful whole is called _________________.
The technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole is called counterpoint.
Which texture describes a traditional hymn sung in four parts: sopranos singing melody, supported by chords in the other parts.
What textures did Bizet use in the Farandole from L'Arlesienne Suite No. 2?
Polyphonic and homophonic
At what point after 0:33 is the dance theme first repeated?
It is repeated again at 0:55.
Three essential techniques in creating form in music are:
Repetition, contrast, and variation
What is the most common form in Western music?
During the last few centuries three-part form (A B A) has probably been used most frequently.
What 3 elements of music does Tchaikovsky use for contrast in the B section of Dance of the Reed Pipes?
Tone color, melody, and key
How many seconds into Dance of the Reed Pipes is the opening theme started for the last time?
The opening theme started for the last time at 1:50.
In Bach's Bouree in E Minor for Lute, describe the difference in tone in the repeat of the A section?
The first time you hear the A section, it is soft. In the repeat, the tone is much more harsh.
List the 7 major stylistic periods and their respective dates:
Middle Ages (450–1450), Renaissance (1450–1600), Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820), Romantic (1820–1900), Twentieth century to 1945, 1945 to the present