cell biology.txt

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Anonymous
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130564
Filename:
cell biology.txt
Updated:
2012-01-25 16:57:41
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Cell biology
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  1. thick muscle filaments, use ATP to slide along thin filaments for contraction
    myosin
  2. thin muscle filaments
    actin
  3. intermediate filaments in hair and nails
    keratin
  4. intermediate filaments in muscle
    desmin
  5. intermediate filaments in fibroblasts
    vimentin
  6. molecule that increases membrane fluidity
    cholesterol
  7. cell membranes: are they negative or positive on the inside compared to the outside?
    negative (3Na+ out/2 K+ in)
  8. adhesion molecules that create cell-cell and cell-ECM junctions to anchor cells
    desmosomes and hemidesmosomes
  9. cell-cell occluding junctions, are impermeable
    tight junctions
  10. cell-cell junctions that allow communication between cells
    gap junctions
  11. transmembrane proteins where the receptor and response enzyme are a single unit
    receptor tyrosine kinases
  12. glycolipid antigens on the cell membrane
    ABO blood antigens
  13. glycoprotein antigens on the cell membrane
    HLA type antigens
  14. variable portion of cell cycle, determines cell cycle length
    G1
  15. quiescent portion of cell cycle
    G0 phase
  16. portion of cell cycle where cell divides
    Mitosis
  17. portion of mitosis where centromeres attach, spindle forms, and nucleus disappears
    prophase
  18. portion of mitosis where chromosomes align
    metaphase
  19. portion of mitosis where chromosomes pull apart
    anaphase
  20. portion of mitosis where separate nuclei reform around each set of chromosomes
    telophase
  21. portion of nucleus where ribosomes are made
    nucleolus
  22. creation of mRNA from DNA
    transcription
  23. transcription factor that binds receptor in the cytoplasm and enters the nucleus
    steroid hormones
  24. transcription factor that binds receptor in nucleus
    thyroid hormones
  25. enzyme that uses oligonucleotides to amplify specific DNA sequences
    DNA polymerase
  26. guanine, adenine
    purines
  27. cytosine, thymidine (DNA), uracil (RNA)
    pyrimidines
  28. use of mRNA for synthesis of protein
    translation
  29. made of two subunits that read mRNA, bind appropriate tRNA and make proteins
    ribosome
  30. site on ribosome where tRNAs dock
    A-site
  31. site of ribosome where tRNAs connect to elongating amino acid for protein synthesis
    P-site
  32. enzyme that unwinds DNA helix, forms DNA-RNA helix, and releases RNA as a single stranded copy
    RNA polymerase
  33. cell metabolism where 1 glucose generates 2 ATP and 2 lactic acid
    glycolysis
  34. enzyme that converts lactic acid to pyruvate
    pyruvate kinase
  35. portion of cell where Krebs cycle occurs, NADH and FADH2 are created
    mitochondria
  36. cell metabolism where 2 pyruvate create NADH and FADH2
    Krebs cycle
  37. portion of cell metabolism where NADH and FADH2 are converted to ATP
    electron transport chain
  38. number of ATP produced by one glucose molecule in Krebs/ETC
    36
  39. production of glucose by lactic acid and amino acids in times of starvation or stress
    gluconeogenesis
  40. name of cycle where lactic acid is convered to glucose
    cori cycle
  41. portion of cell where proteins for export are synthesized
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
  42. portion of cell where lipids and steroids are synthesized, drugs are detoxified
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  43. portion of cell where proteins are modified with carbohydrates
    golgi apparatus
  44. kinase activated by calcium and DAG
    protein kinase C
  45. kinase activated by cAMP that phosphorylates other enzymes and proteins
    protein kinase A

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