Biology

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xijunzhu
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130565
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Biology
Updated:
2012-01-25 17:01:07
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Biology Chapter 24
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Biology
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  1. What are the 5 things that organisms need to
    stay alive?
    energy, information, cells, replication (reprodction), product of evolution
  2. What is theory? What are the two components of theory?
    • Theory is an explanation for a very general
    • class of phenomena or observations
    • Pattern: something that occurs in the natural world
    • Process: responsible for creating the pattern
  3. What is cell theory?
    • 1) All things are made up of cells (pattern)
    • 2) Cells come from preexisting cells (process)
  4. What is theory of evolution by natural selection?
    Species change over time and are related by common ancestry
  5. Give some evidence for species's change over time.
    • -fossil records
    • -extinction
    • -transitional features (fins to limbs)
    • -vestigial traits
  6. Give evidence for common ancestry.
    • -similar species found in same geographical region
    • -homology: genetic, developmental and structural
    • -contemporary populations undergo speciation (one species splitting into two or more descendent species)
  7. What does it mean by descent with modification?
    characteristics are modified from generation to generation; species that lvied int he past are ancestors of the species today
  8. What is a population?
    a group of individuals of same species living in the same area at the same time.
  9. What are the two conditions that must be met for natural selection to occur in a population?
    • 1) individuals must vary in characteristics that are inheritable
    • 2) certain versions of these traits must help individuals survive or reproduce better
  10. Define evolution in terms of differential reproductive success.
    evolution occurs when heritable variation leads to differntail success in reproduction.
  11. How do we get variation in species?
    • 1) Artifical selection: humans select desirable traits within a population
    • 2) natural selection: beneficial to the current environment are "selected" within a population
  12. What does cell and evolution theory have in common?
    all species com efrom preexisting species and are species trace back to a single common ancestor
  13. How did the tree of life come about?
    Woese studied subunit of rRNA. Sequence changed during evolution and are similar in closely related species.
  14. What are the three groups of organisms?
    eukarya, bacteria and archaea
  15. Describe phylogeny and phylum.
    Phylogeny relates the genealogical relationships among all organisms. Branches on the phylogeny are called phylum
  16. What is taxonomy?
    Naming of species proposed by Linnaeus by genus and species
  17. Describe hypothesis testing. What constitutes a well designed experiment?
    State hypothesis and list predictions. Design an observational or experimental study. A well designed experiment has a control group, controlled experimental conditions, and replication
  18. How did Aristotle and Lamarck's idea of being differ?
    Aristotle: Great Chain of being. Lamarck held that organisms move up escalator. Individuals change in response to their environment and then pass on those changes to their offspring.
  19. What are Darwin's four postulates?
    • 1) Individuals vary in their traits.
    • 2) traits are heritable
    • 3) more offspring are produced than can survive in each generation; of these, some will survive long enough to reproduce and some will produce more offsprings than other
    • 4) individuals with certain heritable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce; natural selection occurs when individuals with certain traits produce more offspring than do individuals without those traits
  20. What does it mean to be endemic?
    Can't be found anywhere else.
  21. What were two surprises from the finding of the finches?
    • 1) Evolution can occur quickly enough to be observed
    • 2) Evolution can occur at very small scales (.5 mm difference in beaks could det. survival and death)
  22. Define fitness and adaptations.
    • Fitness: ability of an individual to produce offspring.
    • Adaption: increase in fitness of an individual in a particular environment.
  23. What is polygenic?
    many genes each one exerting a small effect that influence a trait.
  24. Define correlation.
    single allele affects multiple traits (pleiotropy)
  25. What are some of the limitations of gene selection?
    • -counteracting selection (fitness trade off)
    • -history (every trait evolved from preexisting trait)

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