Computer Science Exam 1

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Computer Science Exam 1
2012-01-25 17:11:06

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  1. 5 parts of information system
    • people, procedures, software, hardware, and data
    • additional part: connectivity-allows computers to connect and share infor
  2. 2 kinds of software
    system & application
  3. system software
    "background" software that helps the computer manage its own internal resources
  4. disk defragmenter
    locates and eliminates unnecessary file fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize computer operations
  5. super computer
    most powerful type of computer
  6. mainframe computer
    insurance company
  7. microcomputers
    • least powerful but most widely used
    • desktop
    • notebookds
    • tablet pc
    • netbook
  8. microcomputer hardware has four basic categories:
    • system unit
    • input/output devices
    • secondary storage
    • communication
  9. Most widely used communication device?
    modem, modifies telephone communications into a form that can be processed by a computer
  10. document files
    • word processing
    • Word-memos, term papers, letters
  11. Worksheet files
    • spreadsheet
    • Excel-budgets, predict sales
  12. Database files
    • DBMS
    • Access-employee database includes names, SSN, job titles
  13. presentation files
  14. Connectivity
    capability of your microcomputer to share info with other computers
  15. network
    a communication system connecting 2 or more computers
  16. internet
    world's largest network
  17. cloud computing
    uses the internet and the web to shift many computer activities from a user's computer to computers on the internet
  18. Internet
    • Arpanet
    • (Advanced Research Project Agency Network)
    • 1969
    • actual, physical network. it is made up of wires, cables, and satellites.
    • being connected is called being on-line
  19. Most common way to access the Internet?
    Internet service Provider (ISP)
  20. Browsers
    • software, programs that provide access to Web resources.
    • Browsers allow you to explore or surf the Web
    • Microsoft Internet explorer, Apple Safari, Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome
  21. URL
    (Uniform Resources Locators)
    address or location of resources on the web
  22. URL
    1st part
    • protocol
    • rules for exchanging data between computers
    • http://
  23. URL
    2nd part
    • domain name- name of the server
    • where the resource is located
  24. URL
    last part
    • last part of the domain name following the dot is the top-level domain (TLD)
    • identifies the type of organization
    • .com=commercial
    • .edu=educational
  25. HTML
    hypertext markup language
  26. Applets
    special programs written in a programming language such as Java contained in web pages
  27. spam
    • unwelcomed mail
    • spam blockers or spam filters are used to eliminate spam
  28. Universal Instant Messenger
    • programs that can instant message through any program
    • Digsby, Pidgin, Onext
  29. Web logs (blogs)
    personal Web sites created to keep in touch with friends and family
  30. Microblog
    • publishes short sentences that only take a few seconds to write, rather than long stories or posts like a traditional blod
    • Twitter
  31. Wiki
    Hawaiian word for fast
  32. Search services
    use specials programs called spiders to continually lookd for new info to update the search services' huge databases
  33. search engines
    special programs to locate specific info on the web
  34. keyword search
    • enter a key word or phrase reflecting the info you want
    • hits, sites thta contain the keywords
  35. directory search
    select a category or topic
  36. metasearch engine
    • programs that submit your search request to several search engines at the same time
  37. electronic commerce
    • Business to Consumer
    • online banking
    • online stock trading
    • online shopping
  38. C2C
    Consumer to Comsumer
    • individuals selling to individuals
    • auctions house sites
    • ebay
  39. Carders
    criminals specialized in stealing, trading, and using stolen credit cards over the Internet
  40. digital cash
    • Internet's equivalent to traditional cash
    • buyers and sellers go through a third party to exchange cash
    • PayPal
  41. Plug-ins
    • programs that are automatically started and operate as a part of your browser
    • Adobe Acrobat Reader
  42. Filters
    • block access to selected sites
    • parental control
  43. File transfer utilities
    you can download, copy files to your computer from a server, or upload, copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet
  44. file Transfer protocol
    copy files
  45. 4 types of system software
    • operating system
    • utilities
    • device drivers
    • language translators-convert programming instructions written by programmers into a language that computers understand and process
  46. operating system functions
    • managing resources
    • providing user interface
    • running applications-multi-tasking ability
    • does NOT provide internet access
  47. Warm boot
    system is on, restart
  48. Cold boot
    system is off
  49. dialog boxes
    • provide info
    • request input
  50. categories of operating systems
    • embedded operating systems
    • network operating systems (NOS)
    • stand-alone operating systems
  51. operating system
    oftern referred to as software environment or platform
  52. Windows
    • most populat operating system
    • 90% of the market
  53. Mac OS
    • Apple
    • popular with professional graphic designer and multimedia
  54. Unix
    • designed to run on microcomputers in network environments
    • Linux is one free and popular version of Unix
    • can be modified by users
    • open source software
    • Google chrome is based on Linux
  55. Mobile OS
    control smartphones
  56. Uninstall programs
    to get a clean unistall
  57. file copression programs
    reduce file size so that files can be sent on the internet more efficiently
  58. disk cleanup
    • troubleshooting utility that identifies and eliminates nonessential files
    • frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance
  59. computer virus
    • you catch a computer virus many ways
    • opening attachments to email messages
    • downloading software from the internet
  60. Device driver
    • for many devices, the appropriate drivers are automatically selected and installed when the device is first connected to the computer system
    • for others, the device driver must be manually installed
  61. system unit
    a container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system
  62. decimal system
    binary system
    8 bits to a byte
  63. Motherboard
    controls communications for the enitre computer system
  64. microprocessor
    central processing unit contained on a single chip called the microprocessor
  65. control unit
    • tells the rest of the computer system how to carry out a program's instructions
    • also directs these control signals between the CPU and input and output devices
  66. dual core chips
    allow a computer to run 2 programs simultaneously
  67. parallel processing
    • allow microcomputers to process large complex programs
    • Windows 7
    • Mac OS
  68. smart card
    • size of a regular credit card
    • has an embedded specialty chip
  69. RFID tags
    track locations of objects or people
  70. Random access memory (RAM)
    holds the programs and data that the CPU is presently processing before its output
  71. Cache memory
    • temporary high speed holding area between the memory and the CPU
    • computer detects which info in RAM is most frequently used and then copies that info into Cache
  72. Read only memory
    • have info stored in them by the manufacturer
    • cannot be changed by users
    • computer startup instructions are stored in ROM
  73. Flash memory
    • Like RAM, can be updated to store new info
    • like ROM, does not lose that info when power turned off
    • stores start up instructions for a coputer
  74. expansion cards
    can be inserted into expansion slots to expand computer systems
  75. Bus Lines
    • connects the parts of the CPU to each other
    • provides pathways that support communication among the various electronic components and the CPU