The flashcards below were created by user juicy123 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Damage to Parietal Lobe
    • Difficulties naming objects (Anomia)
    • Difficulties writing words (Agraphia)
    • Inability to attend to more than one object at a time
    • Inability to focus visual attention
    • Problems with reading (Alexia)
    • Poor hand-eye coordination
    • Confusing left-right orientation
    • Difficulty performing math calculations (Dyscalculia) Difficulty drawing
    • Poor visual perception
    • Lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space (Apraxia) that leads to difficulties in self-care.
  2. Frontal Lobe Damage
    • Sequencing - difficulties planning and completing complex tasks in correct order, such as making coffee.
    • Perseveration - repeating same actions and comments over without conscious awareness of having done so.
    • Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others.
    • Loss of flexibility in thinking, (mental rigidity).
    • Distractibility - easily distracted Attention - difficulty focusing on tasks Concentration difficulties
    • Mood swings - (emotional lability)
    • Changes in personality and social behavior
    • Diminished abstract reasoning - imagination
    • Difficulty with problem solving
    • Expressive difficulties - language usage and word finding (Broca's Aphasia) Loss of simple movement of various body parts (paralysis)
  3. Damage to Temprol Lobe
    • Difficulty remembering names and faces (Prosopagnosia) Difficulty understanding spoken words (Wernicke's Aphasia) Difficulty with identification of, and verbalization about objects.
    • Difficulty with concentration
    • Short-term memory loss
    • Interference with long-term memory
    • Aggressive behavior
    • Change in sexual interest
    • Persistent talking (damage to right lobe)
    • Difficulty locating objects in environment. Inability to categorize objects (Categorization)
    • Religiosity Seizure disorders, auras and strange reveries
  4. Occipital Lobe Damage
    • Visual defects (Visual Field Cuts)
    • Difficulty recognizing colors (Color Agnosia)
    • Hallucinations
    • Visual illusions - inaccurately seeing objects.
    • Word blindness - inability to recognize words
    • Difficulty recognizing drawn objects
    • Difficulty perceiving movement (Movement Agnosia) Loss of academic skills (reading, writing)
  5. All commands, conscious or unconscious, arising in the cortex or brain stem must be conveyed to a single target, the large alpha motor neurons. Therefore, the ________ is the final common pathway to the muscles
    ventral horn cell
  6. These cells, whose axons terminate directly on skeletal muscle fibers are also known as
    Lower motor neurons
  7. What deficit(s) result from interrupting upper motor neurons
    Spasticity. Hypertonia.. Hyperreflexia. Pathological reflexes.
  8. Pathway of the Internal Caroitd Artieries
    They ascend from the aortic arch toward the brain along each side of the neck. They pass behind the ear into thetemporal lobe and enter the subarachnoid space. They then go to the circle of Willis where each bifurcates to form two main branches
  9. Name two internal carotid arteries
    the anterior cerebral artery and the middle cerebral artery
  10. The middle and anterior cerebral arteries are more vulnerable to
    ischemic rather than hemorrhagic stroke----- because of their many twists and turns these arteries are all subject to blockages caused by cholesterol build-up
  11. Supply blood to the medial cortex, including the medial aspects of the motor and sensory strips
    The Anterior Cerebral Arteries
  12. A pt with a paralyzed leg or be incontinent of bowel and/or bladder suffered a blockage where
    in the anterior cerebral artery. Paralysis or sensory deficits which affect the opposite side of the body from the hips on down caused by blockages of the ACA
  13. Pt with apraxia of gait. Where is the blockage?
    in the anterior cerebral artery. Paralysis or sensory deficits which affect the opposite side of the body from the hips on down caused by blockages of the ACA
  14. What areas does the Left Middle Cerebral Artery Supply?
    The left middle cerebral artery provides Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Heschl's gyrus, and the angular gyrus with blood. Also, the "head" and "neck" areas of the motor and sensory strips in both hemispheres receive their blood supply from the middle cerebral arteries. Damage to these cortical areas on either side of the brain can impair motor speech and swallowing functions.
  15. Corpus striatum
    the group of structures that includes the basal ganglia and internal capsule; it is called the "striped body" because the internal capsule runs between the caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus of the basal ganglia, creating a striped appearance
  16. What artery supplies the corpus striatum?
  17. What are the arteries of stroke?
    he striatas, which are arterial branches of the middle cerebral arteries, are known as the arteries of stroke as they are the main source of blood for the internal capsule. A rupture of the lenticulo-striate artery results in bleeding usually in the region of the internal capsule. When one of these arteries is damaged, the bottleneck of fibers within the internal capsule , including the pyramidal tract, can be affected, causing many disabilities. The striatas have relatively thin walls and pressure within them is high. For this reason, they are more vulnerable to hemorrhages than to blockages.
  18. Left neglect caused by blockage of the
    Right MCA
  19. Aphasia and apraxia may occur when what is blocked?
  20. prosopagnosia
    inability to recognize faces
  21. prosopagnosia caused by blockage of the
    right MCA
  22. contralateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis as well as contralateral hyposthesia caused by
    blockage in either MCA. Paralysis and sensory deficits will affect the head and neck most. Because the "hand" and "arm" areas are superior to the "head" and "neck" areas of the pre and postcentral gyri, they receive some blood supply from the anterior cerebral arteries. For this reason, they may not suffer as much after a middle cerebral artery blockage.
  23. Damage to the internal capsule caused by blockage or hemorrhage of the striata (branch of middle cerebral) can cause
    upper motor neuron dysarthria and dysphagia.
  24. Right hemisphere syndrome deficits
    • 1. Attention- Focused, sustained, divided, shifting
    • 2. Memory
    • 3. Executive functions- Self-monitoring, planning, goal setting, problem solving, cog. flexibility, inhibition, Perspective-taking (Theory of Mind), Integration & Analysis – creating a whole picture-Seeing the theme, central idea
  25. lingusitc and nonlinguistic deficits in right hemisphere syndrome
    • - difficulty with figurative language
    • - ident ifying relevant information
    • -interpret body language and facial expressions
    • - flat affect
    • - conersational turntaking
    • -impulsivitity
    • -confabulation
    • - disorientation to time and place
    • - left side neglect
    • -Anosognosia
    • -visual spatial deficits
  26. Pyramidal System
    • The pyramidal system has two tracts: corticospinal and corticobulbar. The nerve fibers of the corticospinal tract travel down through the internal capsule down to the medulla. At the inferior level of the medulla, 70-90% of the nerve fibers on each side will deccusate, or cross over to the other side. Those that cross over continue down the spinal cord and are collectively known as the lateral corticospinal tract, and these fibers exert contralateral control. The remaining 10-30% travel down the ipsilateral side and are collectively known as the ventral corticospinal tract, and these fibers exert ipsilateral control. These will continue to travel down the spinal cord until they reach the level of the muscles they will serve, where they will then synapse with the nuclei of lower motor neurons..
    • The nerve fibers of the corticobulbar tract initially follow the same pathway as the corticospinal tracts. However, these will begin to synapse with the motor nuclei ofthe cranial nerves beginning at the level of the upper pons. These fibers will deccusate at various levels of the brainstem. Of interest is that the nuclei of the facial nerve receive bilateral innervation for some muscles and unilateral representation for others. Generally speaking, the upper face is more bilaterally innervated, and the bottom half is more unilaterally innervated (but by contralateral fibers).
  27. Extrapyramidal system
    The pyramidal system was the primary pathway for voluntary movement. The extrapyramidal system is another motor system that is important for control of movements. Neuronal activity for this motor system begins in the cerebral cortex and ultimately exerts an influence on the lower motor neurons. The pathways are indirect, as opposed to the direct pathways of the pyramidal system. The long axons of the corticospinal tract and corticobulbar tract make only one synapse with the lower motor neuron, so the pyramidal system is called monosynaptic. The extrapyramidal system, however, is polysynaptic.The major extrapyramidal nuclei are the basal ganglia. Remember that the basal ganglia is composed of the Globus Pallidus, Putamen, and Caudate Nucleus. Together, the Globus Pallidus and Putamen are called the Lenticular Nucleus. Together, all three are called the Corpus Striatum. Other structures related to the extrapyramidal system include the substantia nigra, red nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, and reticular formation of the mesencephalon. The cerebellum is also thought of as contributing to the extrapyramidal system.The extrapyramidal system works by modifying neural impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex. Impulses generated at the primary motor strip are sent via the extrapyramidal fibers to the basal ganglia. In a complex network of pathways, the structures of the basal ganglia modify impulses and send information to each other. Some fibers will then be directed down to synapse with the lower motor neurons. Other fibers are routed through the thalamus and back up to the cortex.
Card Set
Blood Supply to the Brain
Show Answers