Geology Exam III

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Geology Exam III
2010-04-04 16:14:32

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  1. What are the three major types of rocks?
    Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic.
  2. The name given to a specific rock depends on...
    the minerals which compose the rock.
  3. Igneous Processes
    are those processes related to the melting of rocks to form magma and re-crystallization or solidification of magmas to form igneous rocks.
  4. Sedimentary Processes
    processes related to the weathering, transport, deposition and cementation (or lithification) of pre-existing rocks exposed at earths surface.
  5. What are the two types of weathering?
    Mechanical (breaking down into smaller pieces), and Chemical (altering the basic minerals of a pre-existing rock to produce a new suite of minerals).
  6. Metamorphic Processes
    processes which act on pre-existing rocks to change their mineral composition thereby resulting in a new rock composed of new minerals.
  7. Metamorphism
    process where an existing rock type (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) is transformed in the solid state to a new rock type.
  8. The products of both mechanical and chemical weathering are ________.
  9. Through the processes of transport, deposition, compaction and lithification these particles of degraded rock can become ________.
    Sedimentary rocks
  10. Sediments
    the weathered residuum of other rocks
  11. Sediment particles are found in a broad spectrum of ____.
    sizes. (ranging from boulders to clay)
  12. What are the different particle size names for Clastic sedimentary rocks? (6)
    • (in order of largest to smallest)
    • boulder, cobble, pebble, sand, silt, clay
  13. What sediment name and rock are clastic sedimentary rocks made of boulders, cobbles, or pebbles?
    Gravel and conglomerate or breccia
  14. Conglomerate
    Clastic sedimentary rock made of gravel (boulder, cobble, pebble) with rounded fragments
  15. Breccia
    Clastic sedimentary rock made of gravel (boulder, cobble, pebble) made of angular fragments
  16. Clastic sedimentary rocks made of sand create what rock?
  17. Clastic sedimentary rocks made of silt create what rock?
  18. Clastic sedimentary rocks made of clay create what rock?
  19. What are the two classes of sedimentary rocks?
    Clastic and chemical
  20. Chemical sedimentary rocks
    those which form through precipitation of various minerals from solutions; formed from chemical precipitates.
  21. Because sedimentary rocks form near the Earth's surface by surface processes, they typically preserve clues to ...
    both their environment of deposition and earth surface conditions during the time they formed
  22. Sedimentary structures
    features found in sedimentary rocks which form during the deposition of the sediment and reflect the nature of the environment into which the sediments are deposited.