2402 Lecture Test 1

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Atljavy8
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2402 Lecture Test 1
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2012-02-04 22:13:16
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Section Chapters 15 17
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Section 1 Chapters 15 and 17
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  1. Sensory Receptor
    specialized neuron (neural cell) designed to detect stimuli
  2. Stimulus
    any detectable change in environment (anything that alters the Resting Membrane Potential (RPM) of a sensory receptor)
  3. Sensation
    any stimulus processed in CNS (brain/spinal cord)...(alters RMP of 2nd order neuron)
  4. Perception
    • conscious awareness of a stimulus
    • (3rd order neuron releases Neurotransmitter (N.T.))
  5. Receptor Specificity
    type of stimulus to which a receptor can detect
  6. Receptive Field
    the area of body monitored by a single receptor cell
  7. Receptor Potential
    any change in resting membrane potential in a receptor cell
  8. Generator Potential
    any stimulus that results in 1st order neuron

    or

    any stimulus that results in an action potential in a 1st order neuron
  9. Transduction (signal)
    is the conversion of a stimulus into a signal action potential
  10. General Senses include:
    • 1. touch & vibration (tactile receptors-touch)
    • 2. temperature (thermoreceptors)
    • 3. pain (nociceptors)
    • 4. proprioception (proprioceptors-body positions)
    • 5. pressure (baroreceptors)
    • 6. some internal chemoreception (internal chemorecptor's
  11. Special Senses include:
    • 1. olfaction - external chemoreception (smell)
    • 2. gustation (taste)
    • 3. vision (sight)
    • 4. audition (hearing)
    • 5. equilibrium (balance)
  12. Labeled Line
    is the pathway from the receptor cell to the brain
  13. Sensory Coding
    the brain interprets only the location and type of stimulus based upon the labeled line that carries that information
  14. Tonic Receptors
    receptors is always "on" (releasing neurotransmitter), & will increase or decrease neurotransmitter release upon a stimulus.
  15. Phasic Receptors
    "always off" unless stimulated to turn "on"

    (off no action potential)

    (on fire action potential)
  16. Peripheral Adaptation
    decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus at the receptor cell (in peripherg)
  17. Central Adaptation
    decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus at a nucleus along the sensory pathway
  18. Nociception
    is the detection of pain and algesia.
  19. Nociceptors
    are free nerve-endings and are abundant in skin, joint capsules, and vessel walls.
  20. What are the 3 types of stimuli that nociceptors respond to:
    • 1. extremes of temperature
    • 2. mechanical damage
    • 3. dissolved chemicals
  21. Type A fibers
    are myelinated fibers that carry sensations of fast pain or prickling pain or sharp pain (large axon diameter)
  22. Type C fibers
    are unmyelinated fibers that carry sensations of slow pain or burning and dull aching pain (small axon diameter)
  23. Referred Pain
    is pain from an organ or area of the body that is detected as coming from a different area
  24. Phantom Pain
    is pain felt in a limb that has been amputated
  25. Thermoreception
    is the detection of rapid changes in temperature
  26. Thermoreceptors
    are free nerve-endings and are located very high in the dermis, just below the epidermis, as well as in skeletal muscles and the hypothalamus.

    they are also phasic and adapt quickly.
  27. Mechanoreceptors
    respond to stimuli that physically distort their cell membrane
  28. Free Nerve-endings
    function: thermo receptors or pain fibers(sensation)

    location: between epidermal cells (don't have any connective tissue coverings
  29. Root Hair Plexus
    function: wrap around the root of a hair

    location: wherever hairs are located 9tell you about the direction of movement along the surface of the body)
  30. Merkel's Discs
    function: extremely sensitive tonic receptors fine touch

    location: found on hairy skin
  31. Meissner's Corpuscles
    function: perceive sensations of fine touch and pressure and low-frequency vibration

    location: on hairless skin (eyelids, lips, fingertips, nipples, and external genitalia)
  32. Pacinnian (lamellated) Corpuscle
    function: deep pressure

    location: throughout the dermis
  33. Ruffin's Corpuscles
    function: deep pressure

    location: in the reticular (deep) dermis
  34. Proprioceptors
    provide information about body position, joint position, and movement
  35. Muscle Spindles
    function: amount of tension or stretch in a muscle

    location: muscles
  36. Golgi Tendon Organs
    function: amount of tension or stretch in a tendon

    location: tendons
  37. Baroreceptors
    detect changes in pressure in walls of some blood vessels, the digestive organs (stomach, intestines, colon) the urinary bladder, and the respiratory tract
  38. Carotid Bodies
    detect blood pressure

    (near the origin of the internal carotid arteries on each side of the neck)
  39. Aortic Bodies
    detect blood pressure

    (between the major branches of the aortic arch)
  40. Chemoreceptors
    detect changes in concentration of certain chemicals (glucose, O2, CO2) and substances (minerals like Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, H+) in our blood and body fluids
  41. Olfaction
    is the sense of smell
  42. What are the 4 steps of olfactory transduction?
    • 1. odorant binds to an OBP (odorant binding protein) & activates it
    • 2. activated OBP activates AdC
    • 3.activated AdC converts ATP into cAMP
    • 4. cAMP binds to and opens a gated channel (starts an action potential)
  43. Why does the olfactory pathway cause emotional responses to odorants?
    it passes through the limbic system

    (limbic=emotion & memory)
  44. How is olfactory sensitivity affected by age?
    as we age our ability to detect aromas decrease
  45. Gustation
    is the sense of taste and involves receptor organs called taste buds
  46. Taste Buds
    contains gustatory receptor cells that detect chemicals from the external environment
  47. Papillae
    taste buds are located within the bumps on the surface of the tongue
  48. What nerve innervates the touch and taste sensations of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
    Facial Nerve (VII)
  49. What nerve carries sensations from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
    Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)
  50. Tarsal gland
    is a small sebaceous gland that secretes a lipid-rich product that helps keep the eyelids from sticking together
  51. Chalazion
    is a small lump or cyst, generally results from the infection of a tarsal gland
  52. Sty
    an infection in a sebaceous gland of one of the eyelashes, a tarsal gland, or one of many glands that open to the surface between the follicles produces a painful localized swelling
  53. Lysozyme
    enzyme in tears that has antimicrobial properties
  54. Palpebral conjuctiva
    clean layer of squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the eyelid
  55. Ocular Conjuctiva
    clean layer of squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the eye
  56. Conjunctivitis
    pink eye / it can be contagious
  57. What is the order in which tears would flow once secreted by the lacrimal gland?
    • 1. lacrimal gland
    • 2. lacrimal duct
    • 3. surface of the eye
    • 4. lacrimal caruncle
    • 5. lacrimal punctum
    • 6. lacrimal canal
    • 7. lacrimal sac
    • 8. nasolacramal duct
  58. What are the three layers of the eye?
    • 1. fibrous tunic
    • 2. vascular tunic
    • 3. neural tunic
  59. Fibrous tunic: fibrous connective tissue (dense tissue)

    Sclera:
    white, provides shape & structure, a point of attachment for extraoccular muscle
  60. Fibrous tunic: fibrous connective tissue (dense tissue)

    Cornea:
    translucent (opaque) portion of the sclera that allows light into the front of the eye
  61. Vascular tunic: fibrous connective tissue (dense tissue)

    Choroid coat:
    vasculature (vessels) that provide blood flow to internal eye
  62. Vascular tunic: fibrous connective tissue (dense tissue)

    Ciliary body:
    95% cilivary muscle controls the shape of the lens for accommodation (focusing)

    5% secretory portion=blood is filtered to secrete aqueous humor
  63. Vascular tunic: fibrous connective tissue (dense tissue)

    Iris:
    pigmented portion of the eye that has muscles that control pupil size.
  64. What is the pupillary dilator muscle and what is its function?
    it increases the size of the pupil, (radial muscle) to allow more light in (dark room, sympathetic stimulation)
  65. What is the pupillary constrictor muscle and what is its function?
    it decreases the size of the pupil in a bright room (parasympathetic) (anular muscle)
  66. What order would aqueous humor flow after being secreted by the ciliary body?
    • 1. ciliary body
    • 2. posterior chamber
    • 3. pupil
    • 4. anterior chamber
    • 5. absorbed at the canal of Schlem
  67. What maintains the intraocular pressure?
    the constant secretion and reabsorption of aqueous humor
  68. Glaucoma
    increase of intraocular pressure
  69. Neovascularization
    the formation of functional microvascular networks with red blood cell perfusion
  70. Neural tunic:

    Pigmented epithelium
    layer of cells that absorb photons of light that photoreceptors cannot absorb (that we don't see)

    (prevents vision echoes)
  71. Neural tunic:

    Retina:
    has 3 sub layers of cells

    • 1. photoreceptors=absorb photons in visible spectrum (the ones we see)
    • 2. bipolar cells=1st order neurons
    • 3. ganglion cells=axons exit the eye at the optic disc / nerve
  72. Diabetic retinopathy
    is damage to the eyes retina caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which can eventually lead to blindness
  73. Fovea
    spot on the retina that contains the highest density (concentration) of photoreceptors
  74. Optic disc
    spot on the retina where all ganglion cell axons exit the eye to the optic nerve it contains 0 (zero) photoreceptors
  75. Lens Fibers
    fibers that make up the lens of the eye, very elastic
  76. Crystallins
    are proteins that are clear, refracts light, magnify things
  77. Refraction
    a change in the direction of a ray of light as it passes from one medium to another (bending of light)
  78. What are the four refractive media of the eye?
    • 1. cornea
    • 2. aqueous humor
    • 3. lens
    • 4. vitreous humor
  79. Cataract
    the lens loses its transparency of the cornea or lens
  80. Accommodation
    a change in the shape of the lens to focus light on the retina
  81. Astigmatism
    abnormal curvature of the lens or cornea
  82. Emmetropia
    normal vision 20/20
  83. Myopia
    near sighted
  84. Hyperopia
    far sighted
  85. Presbyopia
    being far sighted due to a loss of elasticity of the lens
  86. 20/20 vision
    normal vision
  87. 20/15 vision
    eagle eye
  88. 20/40 vision
    near sighted
  89. 20/200 vision
    legally blind
  90. What are Photoreceptor cells and what do they do?
    Rod

    1. are an elongated outer segments that contain membranous discs with visual pigment (rhodopsin)

    2. do black/white vision (night vision)

    Cones

    1. are a tapered outer segments (conical) with membraneous folds that contain visual pigments (Iodopsins)

    2. color vision and detail (sharp vision)
  91. What is the process of accommodation?

    Viewing a near object
    (need lens to be "more round")

    • 1. ciliary muscle contracts
    • 2. suspensory ligaments go slack
    • 3. lens becomes more round
  92. What is the process of accommodation?


    Viewing a distant object
    (need the lens to be "less round")

    • 1. ciliary muscle relaxes
    • 2. suspensory ligament light
    • 3. lens is more flat
  93. Pigment
    any substance that can hold on to a photon of light and holds on to it or catches it
  94. What is the function of the pigmented epithelium?
    absorbs photons that are not absorbed by visual pigments
  95. What are the four visual pigments?
    • 1. Rhodopsin
    • 2. Iodopsin I
    • 3. Iodopsin II
    • 4. Iodopsin III
  96. What are Rod and Cones?
    photoreceptor cells that are found in the retina of the eye
  97. What are the five steps of a chemical reaction involved in photoreception in a rod?
    • 1. 11-cis-retinal is struck by photons of light and converted 11-trans-retinal. The change in shape of retinal activates an enzyme called Opsin.
    • 2. Activated Opsin then interacts with and activates many Transducin molecules.
    • 3. Activated Transducin molecules then interact with and activate many PDE (Phosphodiesterase) molecules.
    • 4. Activated PDE molecules then breakdown many cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP) molecules.
    • 5. Breakdown of cGMP results in closing of Na+ channels and hyperpolarization of the rod cell. This decreases neurotransmitter release on the bipolar cell which then sends a signal to a ganglion cell that communicates to the brain that we have seen something.
  98. Bony Labyrinth
    the maze of bone in the inner ear
  99. Perilymph
    the fluid between the bony and membranous labyrinth
  100. How is the sense of equilibrium detected?
    by hair cells found in the vestibule (vestibular complex)
  101. The semicircular canals detect which movements?
    rotational
  102. anterior semicircular canal
    vertical rotation (anterior/posterior rotation)
  103. lateral semicircular canal
    horizontal rotation (saying no)
  104. Posterior semicircular canal
    lateral rotation (side to side) (cartwheel)
  105. The utricle and saccule detects which movements?
    angular and linear
  106. acceleration
    increase of speed or velocity
  107. deceleration
    decrease of velocity

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