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What are protist?
usually unicellular, seaweed is multicellular, most are aquatic/damp locations
what are the 3 categories of protist based in their modes of nutrition?
1.Algae: photoautotrophs (plant-like)
2.Protozoa: mobile and hereotrophs (animal-like)
3.Saprophytic: decomposers (fungus-like)
What do Dinoflagellates have? and their functions?
-2 perpendicular flagella- long one makes it spin and short one guides it up/down/left/right
-have cellulose plates; plants cellulose plates are internal and are beneath the plasma membrane
are bioluminescent; give off blue light to confuse predator; defence mechanism
cause red tide
what is red tide?
population explosion of dinoflagellatesl produce toxin and can paralyze your muscles if get enough toxin in system
What are diatoms? what are their function of holes in shell?
have a double protective, colorless, silica shells
-function of holes to withstand the pressures of ocean water
What are euglena?
-have chloroplasts; plants chlorplasts look different like stacks of donuts with no holes
- are mixotrophs; carry out phtosynthesis, deprive them of light then become hereotropic
Volvox is a colonial algae why?
organism found in groups; spheres look hollow, whole sphere is gel
- the reason why is by the gel, forms cytoplasmic connections with each other, communicating by cytoplasmic connection; dependant on one another
-single cell cant reproduce on its own, hjas to be together to reproduce
What are the structures of multicellular algae(seaweeds)?
blades: photosynthetic site
stipe: provides support
holdfast: provides anchorage
the whole thing is called THALLUS
example: sea palm in costal water
how are seaweed structures different from plants?
- 1. plants have xylem and phloem
- 2. do not have vascular tissues ex. arteries, blood vessels (transport things)
- - seaweeds dont need it b/c of environment; surrounded by water and minerals
What is phaeophytae? and pigment name
- has brown carotenoid pigments to absorb light in the cold, deep oceans
- - pigment name: Fucoxanthin
- ex. Kelp
What us Chlorophytae? pigment name?
have green pigments and "leaf-like" blades to absorb light in fresh waters
-pigment name: chlorophyll
What is Rhodophytae? pigment name?
- -filamentous and branched
- - have red pigments to absorb light in the deep, warm, costal waters of the tropics
-pigment name: phycoerythrin
-ex. bonnemaisonia hamifera
What are amoebas? what do they have?
-have pseudopods; eat vacuole
what are forams?
- -multi-chambered, porous calcium carbonate shells
- - pseudop[ods that extend through the pores of the shells
contrast the pseudopods of amoeba and forams.
forams: thread-like, slim
What are paramecium? functions?
have cilia: perfect for mobility, tight spots
have both macronuclei and micronuclei:
-macro=larger, feeding, waste hormonal, water balance,
-micro=smaller, reproduction, exchange mirconuceli, genetic varibility, separate on its own, binary fission, sexual reproduction
Explain life cycle of cellular slime mold.
1. dispersed spores germinate into amoeboid cells
2. amorboid cell used pseudopods to feed on bacteria
3. amoeboid cell clump together in the absence of food
4. slug like mass transforms into fungus like sporangium
Fungus like protists:
which part of slime mold life cycle is fungus like?
raise sac above ground to disperse spores
what are Oomycetes or water molds? function?
- have fungus like branching, filamentous structures
- function: forms hypae like structures; nutrients formed absorbed and external digestion
compare cell walls of fungi and protist
Fungi: cell wall made out of chitin, zygote(diploid) -> meiosis(spores haploid)
Protist: cells walls cellulose, diploid
Algae are a source of food for many aquatic organisms how?
- acting as produces for aquaticenvironment, base for food chain
- - provide sugars
nutritional value of japanese and korean brown seaweeds in soup and red seaweeds in sushi.
minerals, iodine vitamins
what is slimy polysaccharide in cell wall of seaweeds used for? function?
thickeners in ice creams, pudding, salad dressing, agar growth
function: protection from predators and rocks, low tide, less dehydration
what are shells of distoms used for?
used to produce granular tecture of paint removers, polishes, and detergents
give some examples of how protists form beneficial symbiotic associations with other species.
1. algae and corals: algae carry photosynthesis + sugar and live on corals; corals protect algae
2. protist and terminite: protist live in gut, produce enzymes that break down wood
Explain the life cycle of malaria.
1. infected mosquito bites a human
2. parasite rapidly goes in live within 30 mins
3. parasite starts reproducing rapidly in liver; some parasites lie dormant in liver and become activated years after intial infection
4. gets into the blood stream, attaches and enters RBC's, further reproduction occurs
5. infected RBC's burst, infecting other cells
6. after release, a dormant version of malaria travels thourgh host's blood stream, waiting to be ingested by another mosquita to carry it to a new host
7. the repeating cycle depetes the body of oxygen and also causes chills and fever.
what is african sleeping sickness? caused by? how does it spread and symptoms.
caused by trypanosoma, infects brain
- it spread by the tsetse fly, cattle has parasite and fly bites cow
-symptoms: tired, energy dropped, and soon never wake up
What is trichomoniasis vaginitis? caused by? how does it spread and symptoms?
caused by trichomonas vaginalis, inflammation of vagina
- caused by sexual intercouse and stress
symptoms: men have no symptoms, woman only have symptoms when pH is low ( pH is usually 4 )