Fluid/Electrolytes

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Author:
smtzzy
ID:
130676
Filename:
Fluid/Electrolytes
Updated:
2012-01-25 23:19:45
Tags:
Fluid Electrolytes
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  1. What is ADH?
    What does it do?
    • Anti Diuretic Hormone
    • Holds onto water
  2. What is RAA?
    What does it do?
    • Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System
    • Vasoconstrictor, Holds onto Sodium
  3. What are Natriuretic Peptides (ANP/BNP)?
    Opposes the RAA
  4. What regulates water balance?
    • ADH
    • RAA
    • ANP/BNP
    • Adrenal Gland
    • Kidneys
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Insensible Losses
  5. What is diffusion?
    molecular movement of solute
  6. What is osmotic movement?
    • movement of water - solvent
    • - isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic
  7. What is filtration?
    movement of lolute and solvent w/ H2O pressure
  8. What is active transport?
    movement of solvent and solute w/ energy expended
  9. What is dehydration?
    Fluid volume deficit
  10. What are the types of dehydration?
    • Isotonic- losses equal
    • hypotonic- cells swell, electrolyte loss is > water loss
    • hypertonic- cell shrink, water loss is > electrolyte loss
  11. What is hypovolemia?
    water and electrolyte are lost equally
  12. Causes of hypertonic
    • excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, hyperventilation
    • water moves from ICF to ECF to dilute - increases osmolarity of plasma so cells shrink
  13. Causes of hypotonic
    • malnutrition, excessive ingestion of hypotonic fluids - water
    • excessive NA++ and K+ losses form ECF = decreased osmolarity of ECF so water moves into ICF to dilute - increases osmolarity of cells so cells swell
  14. What is hypervolemia
    • excessive ECF
    • no shift of fluids, circulatory overload, edema
    • renal failure, heart failure, too much IV therapy, steroids
  15. Overhydration Hypotonic
    • water intoxication
    • osmolarity of ECF decreases = increase hydrostatic pressure -> fluid moves from ECF to ICF - cells swell
  16. What are nursing assessments of fluid deficit?
    • turgor & fluid mobility
    • - sternum/abdomen/forehead/forearm
    • - pinch/count in seconds/abnormal = > 3 sec
    • skin/mucous membranes
    • - tongue/membranes - furrows, dry
    • - wrinkled/dry skin
    • hand veins
    • - flat
  17. What are nursing assessments for fluid excess?
    • fluid accumulation - 3rd spacing/interstitial
    • - edema assessment: 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, brawny, weeping
    • - cool skin, pale, feels firm to touch over tibia, fibula, sacrum - pitting
    • - hand veins full and bulging

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