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What are the three categories of protists based on their modes of nutrition?
1. algae(photoautotroph, simliar to plants) = three types unicellular, colonial, multicellular
2. protozoa(proto = first, zoa = animals->they are motile, move around& heterotrophs)
What is a protist definition?
They were the first "eukaryotes" evolved from prokaryotes. And they are unicellular
What is an example of a unicellular algae?
dinoflagellates, diatoms, euglena
What is the fuction of dinoflagellates two perpendicular "flagella"?
The long one makes it spin/rotate and small flagella makes it glide left, up, right, or down. Gives them better exposure to the sun
What id the difference between cellulose plates of dinoflagellates and plants?
Cellulose plates in dinoflagellates are inside. Plants are always in the outside.
What causes red tide? and what are the negative consequences?
- Dinoflagellates cause red tide.
- The flagellates cause a toxin that can paralyze your diaphragm muscles. Eating the shellfish can kill you because they are filter feeders. Swimming in the red tide usually won’t make you infected cause there isn’t enough concentration of toxin.
Why are dinoflagellates bioluminescent?
1. Defence mechanism, to confuse the other fish so they can get away. Also, if they do get eaten the animal eating the flagellates will glow and be a target to larger fish
2. Could be telling the other flagellates that there is danger around
Whats unique about diatoms?
Theu have a "double" protective, colorless, silica shells.
What is the function of the holes in the shells of diatoms?
shell = protection but also, diatoms usually very deep in ocean so shell also help with pressures down there(shell perfect design for the pressures of the ocean) WITHSTAND GREAT PRESSURES!
(T)What is the difference between chloroplasts of euglena complared to chloroplasts of plants?
euglena chloroplast are squared shape with a circle inside which is the starch, chloroplasts in plants are round
(T)Explain how euglena are mixtrophs?
Mixotrophs because when revealed to light use their chloroplast for photosynthesis but when no light, they absorb energy
(T)Why is volvox a colonial algae?
(organism found in group or clusters) transition form between unicellular and multicelluar form , form cytoplasmic connection between each volvox(communicating by cytoplasmic strands that connect), each cell can’t reproduce on their own if taken out(separated), they are dependent on one another but at the same time they aren’t. If cell separated they will be able to survive but not reproduce, asexual reproduction makes up the solid sphere (identical), the spheres will eventually be released from the colony and produce gel(more spaced apart), make gel between each other and then another colony will form
(T)Describe the strucutre of Seaweeds(multicellular algae)
- 1. blades is the photosynthetic site
- 2. stipe provides support
- 3. holdfast provides anchorage
The whole plant (blades, stipe, holdfast) is called the Thallus
How are the plants structures different from seaweed(multicellular algae) structure?
Seaweed does not have vascular tissue but plants do.
Plants : two vascular tissue = xylem(transport water and minerals) and phloem(that transports nutrients)
(T)Why don't seaweeds need vascular tissue?
Seaweed does not need vascular tissue because they are surrounded by minerals, water, so they get it by simple diffusion (T) So they don’t need it because they of the environment they are surrounded by
What are the three diversity of seaweeds?
(T)What is a phaeophytae? and pigment name!
They haev brown carotenoid pigments to absorb light in the cool, deep oceans.
Pigment name : fucoxanthin helps them catch wavelengths of light,phyte=plant like) ex. kelp= fastest and longest living, good at trapping sunlight
(T)What is chlorophytae? and pigment name !
Chlorophytae have green pigments and "leaf like" blades to absorb light in fresh waters.
pigment: same as plants, chlorophyll
(T)What is Rhodophytae and pigment name?
They are filamentous and branched, They have red pigments to absorb light in the deep, warm coatsal waters of the tropics.
Pigment: phycoerythrin--> pigment they use to capture sunlight, you can find these seaweed 200 m under water. Able to survive because of the pigment that helps them get sunlight
(T)What might you find in, deep, cold oceans? in fresh waters? in deep warm coastal waters of the tropic?
- Deep, cold oceans = phaeophytae
- fresh waters = chlorophytae
- deep warm coastal waters of the tropic = Rhodophytae
What are three examples of protozoa?
Amoebas, Forams and paramecium
What is the function of pseudopods in amoebas?
Amoebas very fluid, projection = pseudopod(false feet), function: uses it for moving around and engulfing food, makes a food vacuole around the food , amoebas pseudopod are thick round like
What are 2 characteristics of forams ?
- 1. They have mutli-chambered, "porous" calcium carbonate shells
- 2. Pseudopods that extend through the pores of the shells
Compare and constrast the pseudopods of amoeba and forams?
The pseudopods of forams are very thin, and amoeba are thick and round.
(T)Why are pseudopod thin in forams?
Because forams have tiny holes in their shells and only way for them to extend is the pseudopods have to be thin
What are 3 structures of a paramecium and their functions?
1. cillia - perfect for mobility, cilia so precised in how they move that they can move in any way in like 1 second
2. macronuclei - for feeding, waste removal, water balance
3. micronuclei - important for reproduction
(T)Describe the reproduction of a paramecium
two paramecium come together and exchange micronuclei=genetic variability, then each paramecium on its own divides multiple times(divides by binary fission), the macro nucleus eventually dissolves and the micro nucleus divides and divides until it becomes another macro nucleus
(T)Describe the life cycle of cellular slime mold asexual life cycle (fungus like protists)
- 1. Dispersed spores germinate into amoeboid cells
- 2. amoeboid cell uses pseudopods to feed on bacteria
- 3. amoeboid cell clump together in the absence of food
- 4. slug like mass transforms into fungus like sporangium
- EASY UNDERSTAND STEPS
- 1. spores are there for
- 2. spores hatches
- 3. out comes organisms that look like amoeba(amoeboid) (Boid = resembles) because it has pseudopods thats why its like amoeba, when the environment is good it creates these amoeboid
- 4. The amoeboid huddle and end up forming a slug like mass when there is not enough food
- 5. the slug like mass when you splatter them they will keep coming back together
- 6. some of the slug cells are sacrificed and forms this plate form
- 7. some amoeboid will stack on top of dead stuff and will create the stem
- 8. amoeboid keep stacking up the dead ones and form the top part which will be the ones that will be reproducing (having sex)
Which part of the life cycle is fungus like in cellular slime mold?
he part of the life cycle is fungus-like is during asexual life cycle sportangium (Spores= meiosis, angium = vessel) a container that produces spores
(T)Why is it so important to sacrifice so many shells to make a sporangium for lifeccle of cellular slime mold?
so the sac can get taller and so the spores can be dispersed and wind blows spores away for reproduction
Why are some amoeboids called "cheaters"?
- They are the mutated ones
- because they are mutated they don’t sacrificing and they just go to top to make the spores, increase reproductive adaptation
(T)Oomycetes or water mold have fungus like branching, filamentous structures. What is the function?
The "hyphae looking structures release enzymes and nutrients formed are absorbed (external digestion) = decomposition. nutrients similar to fungus but NOT a fungus because they have cell wall made of cellulose, hyphae increases surface area for better digestion
Unlike fungi, oomycetes/watermolds have cell walls composed of cellulose and are diploid. Constrast with fungi
fungi cell wall made up of chitin , fungi typically haploid , only diploid when they have zygote, when they form zygote they undergo meiosis and create formation of spores
How is algae a source of food for many quatic organisms?
Algae → photosynthesis → (Oxygen & Sugar) They are essential for the food chain of aquatic environments, 30% of all the sugar world wide is made by algae, the other 20% is made from photosyntheic prokaryotes, other 50% is from plants
What is the nutritional value of brown seaweeds in soups and red seaweeds in sushi?
What is the function of the slimy polysaccharide in the cell wall of seaweeds used as thickeners in ice creams, pudding, salad dressing, and agar growth medium?
Protection of predators, and protection against rocks , protect them from being ripped, protection of dehydration
What are 4 uses of protists? (importance?)
- 1. Algae source of food for many aquatic organisms
- 2. seaweeds
- 3. thickeners from slimy polysaccharide in cell wall of seaweeds
- 4. shells of diatoms produce the granular texture of paint removers, polishes, detergents
Why has global warming decreased algae production?
because sun has been warming upper layer of ocean, warm water floats, and stays on top (Ocean needs up swelling to bring nutrients from bottom to top) the warm water prevents the recycling of nutrients from taking place so there fore will effect all the organisms that are dependent on it
(T)Protists form beneficial synbiotic associations with other species. Give two examples
1. algae/corals, algae make (food)sugar and corals protect the algae(protective casing), coral reefs, algae are essential for coral reefs
2. protist/termites: protists that live inside gut of termites, these protists produce enzymes that break down wood , the nutrients that are then released by the break down of the wood is used for the nutrients of the termites
(T)What three diseases are caused by protists?
- 1. malaria
- 2. african sleeping sickness
- 3. trichomoniasis vaginitis
Explain the lifecycle of the parasite that causes malaria
- Complicated Version
- 1. Female Anopheles mosquito transfers Plasmodium falciparum(parasitic protozoan)
- 2. Plasmodium falciparum infects and divides in liver and red blood cells
- 3. Synchroized rupturing releases toxin that results in chills and fever
- EASIER VERSION
- 1. mosquito bites, parasite goes into our blood
- 2. gets into our liver
- 3. gets into liver cells
- 4. liver cell bursts
- 5. parasites leave and enter red blood cells
- 6. infect our red blood cells
- 7. red blood cell burst
- 8. parasites release again
- 9. synchronization of bursting that causes us with our symptoms of chills and fevers
(T)What caused the african sleeping sickness? and How does the disease spread? and the symptoms?
- It is caused by Trypanosoma.There isflagellum on trypanosoma.
It eventually affects the brain, you start to become tired all the time, energy drops, you start sleeping 12 hours, 14, hours , 18 hours til you never wake up.
half million people world wide get it in world. you get it by a tsetse fly that bites cattle and then the tse tse fly bites you
What is the trichomoniasis vaginitis caused by? How does the disease spread? Symptoms?
1. It is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.
2. vagina flammination for women, but men don’t get any symptoms but they can still transfer it through intercourse, 5 million ppl a year get infected with it.
3. Symptoms: caused by this parasite feeding on vagina (trichomonas vaginalis) = flagella in front and flagella in back and even flys. Symptoms only appear when pH of vagina changes(usually very acidic = 4 to destroy harmful organisms to enter vagina). If pH changes the parasite increases in numbers and infects you. Greenish/yellowish colour comes out of your vagina and doesn’t smell very great. change in pH could be caused by antibiotics(Kill bacteria) or too much sexual intercourse. too much stress can also cause the pH to change.