CST - 101 Xtians test 2
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John Calvin: Father of the Reformed Faith
- “I labored at the task especially for our Frenchmen, for I saw that many were hungering and thirsting after Christ and yet that only few had any real knowledge of him.”
- · Converted from Catholicism to “evangelical” faith and wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion about his Protestant views
- · Name is associated to the city of Geneva forever and his belief in God’s election was part of his theological legacy to the church
- · Calvin taught that once a believer understands he is chosen by Christ to eternal life, he will never have to suffer doubt again about salvation
- · Wrote Ecclesiastical Ordinances which argued that the New Testament taught four orders of ministry: pastors, doctors, elders, and deacons which organized Geneva from then on.
Jacob Aminius: Anti-Calvinist
- “That teacher obtains my highest approbation who ascribes as much as possible to divine grace...”
- Anti-Calvinist theology beginning in his 20sDeclined a doctorate in Basel because he felt his youth would bring dishonor to the title
- He believed faith was the cause of election
- He was accused of Pelagianism (overemphasis on free will) and more, but there was no proof
- Delivered address titled “On Reconciling Religious Dissensions among Christians”
- Cause of foundation of today’s Arminian Theology which has influenced key figures in Church history such as John Wesley (founder of Methodism)
Karl Barth: Courageous Theologian
- “Faith is awe in the presence of the divine incognito; it is the love of God that is aware of the qualitative difference between God and man and God and the world."Disliked Germany’s increasing military and how his fellow professors supported it.Began to study the Bible, especially Paul’s Epistle to the romans and came away with an overwhelming conviction about the reality of Christ’s resurrection—which deeply influenced his theology.Wrote Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans.Loved to shock readers into seeing the radicalness of the gospel.His theology became known as “dialectical theology” or “the theology of crisis”.Wrote book Church Dogmatics.Dealt with Hitler and his attempt to create a “German Church”.His sermons to the prisoners Deliverance to the Captives.Most important theologian of 20th century
Athanasius: Five-Time Exile for Fighting “Orthodoxy”
- “Those who maintain ‘There was a time when the Son was not’ rob God of his Word, like plunderers.”Known as “Black Dwarf” by enemies.Spent 17 of 45 yrs he served as bishop of Alexandria in exile.In the end, his theological enemies were exiled from church and his writing shaped future of church.Insisted Arianism was a heresy.Fought against Arius, a priest, because he denied the trinity.Controversy spread throughout cities and to Emperor Constantine, who helped exile Arius and made it a capital offense to possess his writings.Wrote On the Incarnation.Known for Life of St. Antomy.Wrote letter to church with list of books that should make up New Testament and church adopter and we still use them today
John of Damascus: Image Conscious Arab
- “I do not worship matter, I worship the God of matter who became mater for my sake and deigned to inhibit matter, who worked out my salvation through matter. I will not cease from honoring that matter which works for my salvation…”Resigned position in high court to become monk, then a priest in Mar Saba
- Imperial volcano ruined Constantinople and it was said to be because God was angry about idols/icons and people ruined all idols/religious likeness across empire
- John, however, argued that icons should be respected, not worshipped
- Believed icons were expressed devotion and recipient was in the unseen world
- Also said birth of Son of God in flesh and Christ depicted with paint and wood demonstrated faith
- Known for The Fount of Wisdom
Anselm: Reluctant Bishop with a Remarkable Mind
- “No one but one who is God-man can make the satisfaction by which man is saved.”Bishop with profound thinking during Middle AgesAnselm prayed to be ill so he wouldn’t have to become Bishop and he really did become sick and it put it off for three years till he became archbishop of CanterburyKnown for ProslogionArgued that we cant think of God entirely because he’s too great to wrap our minds aroundHe thought deeply about faith and reason, “I believe in order to understand.”While in exile, wrote Why Did God Become Man?
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