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How do you solve for density?









Sulfuric acid
H_{2}SO_{4}

H_{2}SO_{4}
Sulfuric acid



Carbonic acid
H_{2}Co_{3}

H_{2}CO_{3}
Carbonic acid

Water freezes at?
0^{o }C


Oxidation numbers
 Find two elements oxidation numbers, add them up, then find the last one. Ex. Mg(No_{3})_{2}
 O: 3x2=6 so (6)(2)=12
 Mg:(1)(2)=2
 12+2=10
 N:(2)(5)=10
 10+10=0

Isotopes
 Number of protons and nutrons. (They are the same number)
 Ex. C 6+6=12amu's
 Electrons have no mass. Don't add them. Look at atomic mass and top number.

Vertical columns of teh periodic table are called?
Groups or families

The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called?
Periods

Mass
 Symbol: m
 Unit name: kilogram
 Unit abbreviation: kg

Length
 Symbol: l
 Unit name: meter
 Unit abbreviation: kg

Volume
 Symbol: V
 Solve: Length x width x height

Kilo
 Abbreviation: k
 Exponential factor: 10^{3}
 Meaning:1,000
 Example: 1 kilometer(km)=1,000m

centi
 Abbreviation: c
 Exponential Factor:10^{2}
 Meaning: 1/100
 Example: 1 centimeter (cm) = o.o1 m

mili
 Abbreviation: m
 Exponential factor: 10^{3}
 Meaning: 1/1,000
 Example: 1millimeter (mm) = 0.001 m

deci
 Symbol: d
 Exponential factor: 10^{1}
 Meaning: 1/10
 Example: 1 decimeter (dm)=0.1m

Convert C ^{o }to F^{o}
Multiply by 9, then divide by 5, then add 32

Convert from F^{o} to C^{o}
Deduct 32, then multiply by 5, then divide by 9

Energy levels
 n=1 (s)
 n=2 (s,p)
 n=3 (s,p,d)
 n=4 (s,p,d,f)
 n=5
 n=6

Number of electrons in the blocks

Number of orbitals per block

Development of the periodic table
Johann Dobereiner began to group elements with similar properties into groups. A.E. Beguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make use of atomic weights to reveal that te elements were arranged according to their atomic weights with similar elements occurring at regular intervals. Medeleev and Meyer produced it.

Nucleus
Composed of protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons are positive, electrons are negative, and neutrons are neutral.

Significant digits
 1.All digits are significant except zeros at the beginning of the number, and possibly terminal zeros.
 2.Terminal zeros ending at the right of the decimal point are significant.
 3.Terminal zeros in a number without an explicit decimal point may or may not be significant.
 Ex. 0.0025 = 2 Significant Figures
 252 = 3 Significant Figures
 250 =2 or 3 Significant Figures

Scientific notation
 Just the digits (with the decimal point placed after the first digit), followed by× 10 to a power that puts the decimal point where it should be (i.e. it shows how many places to move the decimal point).


Avogardro's constant
mole=6.02x10^{23}

Empirical Formula Determination
 1.treat % as mass, and convert grams to moles.
 2.divide each value of moles by the smallest of the values.
 3.multiply each number by an integer to obtain all whole numbers.

Finding Molecular Formula
 1.find the formula mass of C_{3}H_{5}O_{2}
 2.divide the molecular mass by the mass given by the empirical formula.
 3.multiply the empirical formula by this number to get the molecular formula.

