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  1. Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants why?
    Fungi: hereotrophs, glycogen(store sugar), chitin(cell wall)

    animals: hereotrophs, glycogen, chitin (crusteans, insects)

    Plants: photoautotrophs, starch, cellulose
  2. what is fungi?
    • mainly mulicellular, non-motile eukaryotes
    • - most are saprophytic( important for ecological view)
  3. why are some fungi parasitic?
  4. What is the structure of fungi?
    composed of thin, cylindrical structures called hyphae

    - form compact reproductive structures above the ground

    • -mycelium
  5. what are hyphae? compare to cell wall of bacteria?
    have protective walls made of a nitrogen containing polysaccharides ( called chitin )

    - bacteria cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan
  6. what is mycelium? why is it grown that way?
    network like arrangement beneath the soil ( all hyphae network)

    -b/c they gain surface area for gathering nutrients, increasing nutrient increase
  7. why fungi form compact reproductive structures above the ground?
    taking cytoplasm

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  8. what is septate hyphae?
    series of cross walls that show you boundaries of cells, perforated cross wall cells can go through (drifting effect)

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  9. What is coenocytic hyphae?
    no cross walls, continuous cytoplasmic connection, NO cytokinesis

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  10. what is Haustoria?
    • specialized hyphal tips of parasitic fungi
    • - penetrates a host cell, use to extract nutrients from or exchange nutrients with their hosts

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  11. what are the 5 phyla of fungi?
    • 1. Chytrids (chytridiomycota)
    • 2. zygote fungi (zygomycota)
    • 3. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (glomeromycota)
    • 4. sac fungi (ascomycota)
    • 5. club fungi (basidiomycota)

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  12. Chytridiomycota are primitive why?
    • produces spores with flagellum (can swim certain distances)
    • -no cross walls, aquatic

    * have coenocytic hyphae
  13. ZYGOMYCOTA- have coenocytic hyphae

    During unfavorable environments, reproduce sexually by produing a Zygosporangium. advantages?

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    are resistant to freezing and drying and are metabolically inactive.
  14. during favorable environments, reproduce asexually by forming a spore filled sporangium. advantage?
    genetic diversity and increase survival
  15. Glomeromycota

    what do they have? and their functions
    haustoria that penetrate plant root cells and then branch into arbuscular mycorrhizae( fungus, highly branched, tree-like)

    -function: penetrate cell wall of plants(keeps plants alive b/c it delievers things plant needs) and drains sugars and amino acids

    * have coenocytic hyphae
  16. Ascomycota

    during sexual reproduction, form ______ that have "elongated sacs" called _____. unique feature?
    ascocarps, asci

    unique feature: have 8 spores and spores are always internal

    * have coenocytic hyphae
  17. ascomycota

    during asexual reproduction, produce____ at the tips of their hyphae called ____.
    spores, conidia

    * have septate hyphae
  18. Examples of Ascomycota
    • Orange peel cup fungus
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    • Morel
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    • Truffles
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    • Yeast
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  19. Basidiomycota

    during sexual reproduction, form _______ with "cup shaped sacs" called _____ unique feature?
    basidiocarps, basidia

    unique feature: reproductive structure, external

    * have septate hyphae

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  20. Examples of Basidiomycota
    • Stinkhorn (flies that help with dispersal)
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    • Maiden veil fungus( flies help with dispersal)
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    • Shelf fungi(decomposing wood)
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    • puffballs
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  21. what are ergots? negative effect?

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    purple structures on rye formed by an ascomycetes infection

    Ergot is a fungal disease that primarily affects rye, triticale, barley and wheat, and which adversely affects the health and productivity of livestock.
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2012-01-26 09:51:36

bio 1215
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