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(T)Why are fungi more closely related to animals then plants? (ON THE QUIZ KNOW THIS)
- 1. fungi
- 1. glycogen
- 1. cell wall = chitin
- 2. store sugar in form of glycogen
- 2. chitin(crestations & insects)
- 3. plants
- 3. photoautotrophs
- 3. starch
- 3. cellulose
(T)Most fungi are saprophytic but some fungi are parasitic. Explain and compare the two. (T)
1. fungi made out of thread like structure = hypha , release enzymes → external digestion , what ever nutrients released are then absorbed by the hypha. => decomposition = saprophytic
2. parasiticism when fungi infects living cells. = this is the form we don’t want, causes diseases.
Describe the structures of fungi
They have a reproductive strucutre, spores, and mucelium.
- 1. Fungi are composed of thin, cynlinder structures called hyphae.
- 2. Hyphae, have protective cell walls made of a nitrogen-containing polysaccharides (called chitin )
- 3. These hyphae grow into a metwork like arrangement = mycelium beneath the soil
- 4. the hyphae form compact reproductive structures above the ground = reproductive structure
Compare the cell wall of bacteria to cell wall of hyphae in fungil.
Cell wall of bacteria has peptidoglycan (sugar , protein combination as compared to fungi that just has sugar).
The Chitin makes cellulose poly saccharides.
Why is the mycelium of Fungi beneath the soil? / why is it so big?
why is mycelium so big? -- because it has large surface area for releasing more enzymes and for absorbing the nutrients,(T)(T) rate of decomposition decreases, and absorbing increases
In your backyard there is 2 mushrooms that look alike and one that looks different. How many myceliums are there?
TWO. all the mushrooms that look alike in backyard comes from singe mycelium (can be three countries!) one of largest organisms on earth but hidden from view
Why do hyphae form compact reproductive structures above the ground?
to disperse the spores in reproductive structure can only do it above ground thats why. → reproductive structure temporary and die when spores dispersed
What are the three types of hyphae and explain them?
1. Septate hyphae: septate =cross wall , cross - walls are perforated(holes) large enough that all organelles of cell can drift from one cell to the next (ex. mitochondria, nuclei can all go through cross wall) = like cytoplasmic streaming continuously , the cross walls are there for reinforcement, It maintains structure of hyphae. thats why you could see multiple nuclei in each cell
2. Coenocytic hyphae: no cross walls , continuous cytoplasmic connections, nuclei divide but no cytokinesis, hyphae grows
3. Haustoria are specialized hyphal tips of parasitic fungi. Function: extensions of hyphae that penetrate host cell. It goes across cell wall but does not penetrate plasma membrane but penetrates cell wall. Why? Because if fungus goes through plasma membrane then the cell would die. the fungus wants its nutrients so it does not want the cell to die. It penetrates the cell wall cause it wants to get close.
What are the 5 diversities of fungi ? and describe hwo it looks.
- 1. zygomycota(ex. in lab = bread mold) = zygote fungi
- 2. ascomycota = Sac fungi
- 3. basidiomycota = club fungi
- 4. chytridiomycola = chytrids
- 5. glomeromycota = arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA are primitive. Why?
1. the fact that they are aquatic
2. the fact that they produce spores that have a flagellum (zoospores) = animal like spores because they can move around. Zoospores are not effective at dispersal because they can only swim short distances. Can only be found in water. Reproductive structure produces the spores
What does it mean that chytridiomota have coenocytic hyphae?
Means they have no crosswalks.
(T)What happens to zygomycota when environment is bad? How do they reproduce? and what is an advantage of what they do?(T)
- They reproduce sexually by producing a zygosporangium.
- How they reproduce: They don’t have reproductive organs (no male and females) so we call them negative and positive strain. They produce with different function , they know its a different fungus by what each one release(chemicals). They grow longer and longer til the two strains have contact. They get excited and SWELL up along their tips where they meet. Inside these swollen tips is nuclei in both strains. Tips become separated and walls form where the swollen part begins. The wall that the two strains are touching with start to disappear. And then a protective coat (layers of hyphae?) form around the two swollen strains. which is then called a zygosporangium (angium = container, spores = going to produce spores, zygo = zygote (fetilized egg) the nuclei are going to come together and fertilize with each other inside that protective wall and when timing is right they are going to start producing spores.
3. Advantages for producing zygosporangium = 1. genetic diversity ** 2. protecting it and making it dormant
Zygomycota during favorable environments, reproduce asexuallyby forming a "spore-filled" sporangium. Advantage? (NOT SURE IF ANSWER IS RIGHT)
asexual reproduction(happens when environment is good)= straight horizontal hyphae = haploid(n) , the spores are going to produced by mitosis. Difference is that spores that are made will be mitosis because we want to keep them haploid.
What is the key difference in zygomycota sexual and asexual reproduction? and why?
In sexual reproduction the spores are produced by meiosis and in asexual reproduction the spores are produced by mitosis because we want to keep the sprores haploid.
Glomeromycota have haustoria that penetrate plant “root”cells and then branch into arbuscularmycorrhizae. Function?
haustoria = parasitic?(doesn't kill plant cell but benefits plant cell.), drain away its nutrients they penetrate cell wall, the fungi leave cell wall and make the hyphae really branched , deliver water/minerals to plant cells , hyphae structure penetrates deep in the soil = Great example of symbolic relationship because benefits fungi and the plant ***
ASCOMYCOTA during sexual reproduction, form ascocarps that have"elongated sacs" (called asci). Unique feature?
- reproduce sexually
- 1. unique = reproductive structure that forms, these form ascocarp(carp = reproductive structure, asco=elongated sacs) unqiue because they always have 8 spores inside ascus 2. spores are always internal hyphae tip
- EASY ANSWER:
- 1. They have ascus
- 2. eight ascospores(genetically different because sexual)
- 3. ascospores are internal.
During asexual reproduction, ascomycota produce spores at the tipsof their hyphae called? Describe it.
- conidiaconidia = a spore , asexual , but instead of forming a sac, the hyphae forms finger like projections out of it, tip of each finger = a spore forms, spore that is being released = conidia, they are all genetically identical, formed by mitosis, they are forms AT the tip of hyphae(but bread mold was formed inside the sac) That’s why we don’t name it spore because method used to make it is different.
(T)Show 4 examples of ascomycota(T)
1. orange peel cup fungus
2. morel, lots of chefs use them
3. yeast*** use it for alcohol, breaks down sugar and releases ethanol and co2 ,unique cause only unicellular in fungi, divide asexually by budding
4. truffles * very cool, they never come above the surface , spores dispersed by other animals that eat it , they release pheromones to attract animals to attract opposite sex(in armpits), pigs and dogs find these >> truffles very expensive!
Basidiomycota during sexual reproduction, form basidiocarps with "club-shaped sacs” (called basidia). Unique feature?
basidomycota = (typical mushrooms) , underneath gills of mushroom = basidia , single basiduim will only produce 4 spores. Spores are external. (like a bears claw) *external and only four and have sepate hyphae
(T)Show 5 examples of basidiomycota (T)
1. Stink horn - rotten corpse and smell really bad → so certain animals don’t eat them and attract flies and help disperse the spores
2. Maiden Veil Fungus - looks like dog poo so flies are attracted to it to disperse their spores.
3. shelf fungi - decomposing wood → creates diarrhea, man used it to control his parasitic worm in him
4. puffballs -
5. Giant puffballs