psych 10-1

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psych 10-1
2012-01-26 13:29:28

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  1. Actualizing tendency
    in Rogers's theory, an innate drive which reflects the desire to grow, to develop and to enhance one's capacities.
  2. Anal stage
    the second sexual and social stage of a child's development during which bowel control is learned.
  3. Anima
    • -Jung's term for the feminine part of a man's personality
    • -The part of the psyche that is directed inward, and is in touch with the subconscious
  4. Animus
    Hostility or ill feeling, motivation to do something.
  5. Archetypes
    • -A very typical example of a certain person or thing.
    • -An original that has been imitated.
  6. Big five
    five broad domains which define human personality and account for individual differences.
  7. Cardinal Traits
    a basic and dominant characteristic, as greed or ambition, that,according to a theory developed by psychologist Gordon Allport(1936), controls the behavior of many people.
  8. Carl Jung
    the founder of Analytic Psychology, also known as Jungian Psychology. This school of psychology shares similarities with Freud's psychoanalytic method in the emphasis it places on the role of the unconscious. However, Jung had other ideas about the unconscious. Jung differentiates between the "personal unconscious," which he recognizes as an important part of the normal psyche, and the "collective unconscious", which refers to innate psychological predispositions shared by all human beings throughout history. Jung also developed a theory of personality, which defines eight personality types based on the opposing attitudes of introversion and extroversion. According to him, attitudes refer to a predisposition to behave in a certain manner. People who are classified as introverts place importance on their subjective view of the world, while extroverts place more emphasis on objectivity and surrounding influences. Jung further identified four functions of the personality: feeling, thinking, sensation, and intuition. Feeling and thinking refer to rational thought processes that allow us to understand the value and meaning of things. Sensation and intuition are non-rational functions by which we perceive the world - either through our sense organs (sensation), or by means of an unconscious process (intuition).The four functions and the two attitudes combine to create eight distinct personality types: extroverted-thinking, introverted-thinking, extroverted-feeling, introverted-feeling, extroverted-sensing, introverted-sensing, extroverted-intuitive, and introverted-intuitive. These personality types formed the basis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which is the world's most widely used personality assessment tool used to determine how a person perceives the world and makes decisions.
  9. Carl Rogers
    one of the most influential psychologists of modern times, and is well known for the creation of Client-Centered Therapy, also known as Person-Centered Therapy or Rogerian Psychotherapy. As the name implies, this method of therapy emphasizes the person as the subject, rather than an object. The client-therapist relationship is not one where the therapist's role is to cure or change the person. Rather, the therapist's role is to create a positive relationship that the client may use as a means of personal growth.Rogers believed that humans have a "Self-Actualizing" tendency - an innate drive that pushes the person to fulfill his potentials. A "Fully-Functioning Person" is an individual who is continually moving toward self-actualization. This type of person is open to life's experiences, has trust in himself, and is able to express his feelings and act independently. However, to become a fully-functioning person, one needs to have experiencedUnconditional Positive Regard and not have developed "Conditions of Worth." Oftentimes as children, we receive positive regard from significant people, notably our parents, only when we meet certain conditions. For example, a child may feel that he is loved when he's told that he is being a "good boy" but not when he has misbehaved. This creates conditions of worth, where the child feels that he becomes worthy of love only when his actions are consistent with what is expected of him.Rogers believed that the work of the therapist is to create a relationship with the client where he is able to experience Unconditional Positive Regard so that he may be able to grow and become a fully-functioning person.
  10. Central traits
    a general characteristic found in some degree in every person.
  11. Cognitive-social learning theories
    suggests that humans can learn through observation without imitating the observed behavior. He also states that humans can learn from behaviors indirectly or directly by observing behaviors and the consequences of those behaviors. The theory suggests that a combination of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors influence behavior.
  12. Collective unconscious
    According to Carl Jung, each person not only has their own unique unconscious mind, but also shares some elements of unconsciousness with all other people. He called this shared unconscious, the collective unconscious. Jung suggested that there are archetypes (images and memories of important human experiences) that are passed down from generation to generation. These archetypes can be common designs, shapes, colors, and figures seen over and over again throughout time. For example, Jung suggested that a rash of disk shaped UFO sightings were related to an archetype of god -- he believed that the disk-shape was an archetype of godlike form and perfection and the rash of sightings was an expression by people who wanted to be saved from destruction by some superhuman force.
  13. Conditional positive regard
    According to Rogers, people behave in specific ways to earn the love and respect and positive regard of parents and other significant people in their lives. Positive regard, when it must be earned by meeting certain conditions, is called conditional positive regard.
  14. Defense mechanisms
    • -An automatic reaction of the body against disease-causing organisms
    • -A mental process (e.g., repression or projection) initiated, typically unconsciously, to avoid conscious conflict or anxiety
  15. Denial
    a defense mechanism in which a person unconsciously rejects thoughts, feelings, needs, wishes, or external realities that they would not be able to deal with if they got into the conscious mind. For example, when people are told that they have a terminal illness and are going to die in a short period of time, the news can be so overwhelming that they enter into a state of denial--they refuse (on every level) to accept that they are going to die soon because it is much too painful to handle.
  16. Displacement
    is when a person shifts his/her impulses from an unacceptable target to a more acceptable or less threatening target. For example, if you are very angry at your teacher because you did poorly on a test and think the reason for your poor performance is because the teacher asked tricky, unfair questions, you may become angry at your teacher. But, you obviously can't yell at your teacher (really, you can't!), hit your teacher, or express your angry in any other hostile way toward the teacher, so you go home and "displace" your anger by punching your little brother instead.
  17. Ego
    is the part of personality that helps us deal with reality by mediating between the demands of the id, superego, and the environment. The ego prevents us from acting on every urge we have (produced by the id) and being so morally driven that we can't function properly. The ego works according to the reality principle which helps us direct our unacceptable sexual and aggressive urges to more acceptable targets. For example, when you walk down the street and see an extremely attractive person, the ego, working on the reality principle, helps us realize that it is not socially acceptable to cross the street, grab the person, and have sex with them. Instead, the ego tells us that there will be other, more appropriate people, places, and times to fulfill these needs.
  18. Ego ideal
    the part of one's ego that contains an idealized self based on those people, especially parents and peers, one admires and wishes to emulate.
  19. External locus
    is more likely to believe that his or her fate is determined by chance or outside forces that are beyond their own personal control. This strategy can be healthy sometimes. Like when dealing with failure or disaster, but can also be harmful in that it can lead to feeling of helplessness and loss of personal control.
  20. Extrovert
    a person who tend to focus on the external world and people. People often associate being socially outgoing with extroversion, but that is a little too simplistic. They may be more outgoing in that they gain energy from the other people and the external environment, and usually prefer to be with others.
  21. Factor analysis
    a type of statistical procedure that is conducted to identify clusters or groups of related items (called factors) on a test. For example, when you take a multiple choice Introductory Psychology test, a factor analysis can be done to see what types of questions you did best on and worst on (maybe they did best on factual types of questions but really poorly on conceptual types of questions). That wasn't too bad was it?
  22. Fixation
    refers to when a person is "stuck" in one stage of psychosexual development.
  23. Freud
    is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis, a method for treating psychological pathology by means of dialogue between the patient and the psychoanalyst. One of his biggest contributions is the idea that the unconscious mind holds the key to understanding conscious thoughts and behavior, and the role that dreams play in unlocking what is hidden or repressed beneath conscious awareness.
  24. Fully functioning person
    Rogers describes this as the good life, where the organism continually aims to fulfill its full potential. There are seven characteristics.
  25. Genital stage
    is the final stage in Freud's theory of psychosexual development and begins in puberty. During this stage, the teenager has overcome latency, made associations with one gender or the other, and now seeks out pleasure through sexual contact with others. The sexual contact sought has shifted from the opposite sex parent of the phallic stage (and overcoming this), and is now focused on opposite sex people of similar age. The pleasure that they gain is now through actual physical stimulation of the genitals by the opposite sex.
  26. Humanistic personality theory
    stress the basic goodness of human beings and the need to achieve one's full potential.
  27. Id
    is the part that you may consider that little devil sitting on your shoulder trying to get you to do all those things that feel good, even if they are wrong. More specifically, the id is the part of the human personality that is made up of all our inborn biological urges that seeks out immediate gratification (guided by the Pleasure Principle), regardless of social values or consequences.
  28. Inferiority complex
    is a term used to describe people who compensate for feelings of inferiority (feeling like they're less than other people, not as good as others, worthless, etc.) by acting ways that make them appear superior. They do this because controlling others may help them feel less personally inadequate.
  29. Internal locus
    If you believe that you control your own destiny and that your behaviors are under your control,
  30. Introvert
    refers to a person who is focused on (often preoccupied) with his or her private mental experiences, feelings, and thoughts. The term was developed by Carl Jung in his theory of personality.
  31. Latency period
    The fourth stage of psychosexual development in psychoanalytic theory, from about five years to puberty, during which a child apparently represses sexual urges and prefers to associate with members of the same sex. It is preceded by the phallic stage and followed by the genital stage.
  32. Libido
    introduced by Sigmund Freud and is, at a very basic level, sexual desire and urges. This term, which is part of the Id, is a secual energy or force that can come into conflict with the conventions of what is typically considered civilized behavior.
  33. Locus of control
    a theory in personality psychology referring to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them.
  34. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    a test that detects abnormal personality styles. This instrument is commonly used by clinicians to determine if a person may have a psychological disorder. It is also commonly used by psychologists to determine if people are fit to work in public safety occupations such as police officer.
  35. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.