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What are the 7 things life requires?
- 1. Order
- 2. Reproduction
- 3. DNA
- 4. Energy utilization
- 5. React to stimulous/environment
- 6. Can regulate internal environment
- 7. Evolutionary Adaptation
What are the 10 levels of organization?
- 1. Atoms
- 2. Molecules
- 3. Cells
- 4. Tissues
- 5. Organ
- 6. Organism
- 7. Populations
- 8. Communities
- 9. Ecosystem
- 10. Biosphere
3 major groups of living organisms
- 1. Bacteria
- 2. Archea
- 3. Eukarya
What is bacteria?
Prokaryotic, meaning single cell with no nucleus
What the newest living thing?
What the most occurring element?
What is found most in animals and plants but is only 1% of the universe?
Why is Carbon so awesome?
Because it shares easily
What are the essential Macronutrients?
3 highest amount and in order of plant food
N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg
What element is needed by all plants?
98% of plants contain these 6 elements:
- 1. Hydrogen
- 2. Carbon
- 3. Nitrogen
- 4. Oxygen
- 5. Phosphorus
- 6. Sulfer
Hydroxyl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
Carbonyl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
Carboxyl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
Ketones Functional Group arrangement
Amino Functional Group arrangement and Class name
Phosphate Functional Group arrangement and Class name
- Organic Phosphates
Sulfhydryl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
What are the 7 functional groups?
- 1. Alcohols
- 2. Aldehydes
- 3. Amines
- 4. Carboxylic Acids
- 5. Ketones
- 6. Phosphates
- 7. Thiols
Example of a Ketone:
Example of an Carboxylic Acid
Example of an Amine
Example of a Phosphate
Example of a Thiols
Example of a Hydroxyl
Example of a Carbonyl
4 Major Groups of Organic molecules
- Nucleic Acids
The most important rxn and why
- CO2 + H2O ->C6H12O6 + O2
- (this is glucose!)
What are monomers used for?
To make polymers
What are all polymers?
The rxn of monomers joining together to make polymers
The rxn of when polymers are broken
The ratio of a Carbohydrate
What are sugars, starches, and cellouse?
How many carbons does it take to make Glucose, Fructose, and Ribose?
What monomer forms a pentagon shape when placed in H2O?
Differences between Alpha and beta glucose
- beta has a hydroxyl group that is above the ring and is cellouse
- alpha has an -OH group that points downward and is starch
Sucrose and Maltose
What is Sucrose made of?
Fructose and Glucose
What is maltose made of?
a-glucose + a-glucose
What is maltose used for?
Shakes and Beer
How is sucrose and maltose made?
What are the gas makers of the carbs?
What is the shortest oligosaccharide?
What is raffinose made of?
Galact + Glucose + Fructose
What is glycogen used for?
How are starch, glycogen and cellulose different structurally?
- If starch is added to H2O it forms a helox ball
- Glycogen has branches
- and cellulose's structure has every other glucose is upside down
What is cellulose made of?
What does cellulose make when weaved together?
What uses fibrils and why?
- plants because of thier cell wall
- also why humans cannot digest it and produce gas~broccoli
Why does a potateo have more calories then lettuce?
Because lettuce has more cellulose making it harder for humans to break down hence getting less calories from it
Chemical make up of cellulose and starch
What are lipids 3 functions for plants?
- stored energy
What are lipids made of?
Why doesn't lipids like H2O?
Less O's in the make up
Is lipids a polymer?
no, but it is a macromer
4 Types of lipids
Whats a neutral lipid?
glycerol + 3 fatty acids
Saturated vs. Unsaturated
- filled w/hydrogen
- solid @ room temp
- High Density
- double bonds
- liquid @ room temp
- Low Density
2 types of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
- Mono unsaturated (only 1 double bond)
- Poly unsaturated (more than 1 double bond)
What are phospholipids used for?
What makes up a phospholipid?
glycerol + 2 fatty acids
What are Sterols used for?
- Animals Hormone
Name of plant sterol
Name of fungi sterol
Name of human and animal sterol
What are the 3 types of sterol?
What is it called when seeds are collected from desireable appearing individuals in a population, and the next generation is sown from the stock of mixed seed
What are Trichomes and what is thier purpose?
Outgrowth from the epidermis of plants, as a hair. Used to repel insects, reflect sun and retain H2O
What is petiole?
The stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem
B, Cu, Fe, Cl, Mn, Mo, Zn
Most abundant organic polymer molecule
Cellulose-bc of wood
Difference between populations and communites:
Populations are specific species and communities is all the species coexisting together
Monomer of nucleic acid