Bio 130 1st set of ?'s for 1st test

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lacythecoolest
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130808
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Bio 130 1st set of ?'s for 1st test
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2012-02-10 14:08:14
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1st test review cards
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  1. What are the 7 things life requires?
    • 1. Order
    • 2. Reproduction
    • 3. DNA
    • 4. Energy utilization
    • 5. React to stimulous/environment
    • 6. Can regulate internal environment
    • 7. Evolutionary Adaptation
  2. What are the 10 levels of organization?
    • 1. Atoms
    • 2. Molecules
    • 3. Cells
    • 4. Tissues
    • 5. Organ
    • 6. Organism
    • 7. Populations
    • 8. Communities
    • 9. Ecosystem
    • 10. Biosphere
  3. 3 major groups of living organisms
    • 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Archea
    • 3. Eukarya
  4. What is bacteria?
    Prokaryotic, meaning single cell with no nucleus
  5. What the newest living thing?
    Archea
  6. What the most occurring element?
    Hydrogen
  7. What is found most in animals and plants but is only 1% of the universe?
    Oxygen
  8. Why is Carbon so awesome?
    Because it shares easily
  9. What are the essential Macronutrients?
    3 highest amount and in order of plant food
    N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg
  10. What element is needed by all plants?
    Fe
  11. 3 diatomic elements:
    • H-H
    • O=O
    • N(triple bond)N
  12. 98% of plants contain these 6 elements:
    • 1. Hydrogen
    • 2. Carbon
    • 3. Nitrogen
    • 4. Oxygen
    • 5. Phosphorus
    • 6. Sulfer
  13. Hydroxyl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
    R-OH

    Alcohol
  14. Carbonyl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
    • R-C=O
    • Aldehydes
  15. Carboxyl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
    • R-C=O
    • OH

    Carboxylic Acids
  16. Ketones Functional Group arrangement
    • R-C-R
    • =O
  17. Amino Functional Group arrangement and Class name
    R-N

    Amines
  18. Phosphate Functional Group arrangement and Class name
    • O
    • R-O-P-O
    • O
    • Organic Phosphates
  19. Sulfhydryl Functional Group arrangement and Class name
    • R-SH
    • Thiols
  20. What are the 7 functional groups?
    • 1. Alcohols
    • 2. Aldehydes
    • 3. Amines
    • 4. Carboxylic Acids
    • 5. Ketones
    • 6. Phosphates
    • 7. Thiols
  21. Example of a Ketone:
    Acetone
  22. Example of an Carboxylic Acid
    Acetic Acid
  23. Example of an Amine
    Methylamine
  24. Example of a Phosphate
    3-Phosphoglyceric acid
  25. Example of a Thiols
    Mercaptoethanol
  26. Example of a Hydroxyl
    Ethanol
  27. Example of a Carbonyl
    Acetaldehyde
  28. 4 Major Groups of Organic molecules
    • Carbs
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  29. The most important rxn and why
    • CO2 + H2O ->C6H12O6 + O2
    • (this is glucose!)
  30. What are monomers used for?
    To make polymers
  31. What are all polymers?
    Macromers
  32. The rxn of monomers joining together to make polymers
    Dehydration/condensation
  33. The rxn of when polymers are broken
    Hydrolysis
  34. The ratio of a Carbohydrate
    C:H:O 1:2:1
  35. What are sugars, starches, and cellouse?
    Carbohydrates
  36. Glucose
    Fructose
    Ribose
    Monosaccharides
  37. How many carbons does it take to make Glucose, Fructose, and Ribose?
    6 Carbons
  38. Glucose's Structure:
    • =O
    • C-C-C-C-C-C-OH
  39. What monomer forms a pentagon shape when placed in H2O?
    Fructose
  40. Differences between Alpha and beta glucose
    • beta has a hydroxyl group that is above the ring and is cellouse
    • alpha has an -OH group that points downward and is starch
  41. Sucrose and Maltose
    Disaccharides
  42. What is Sucrose made of?
    Fructose and Glucose
  43. What is maltose made of?
    a-glucose + a-glucose
  44. What is maltose used for?
    Shakes and Beer
  45. How is sucrose and maltose made?
    By dehydration
  46. What are the gas makers of the carbs?
    Oligosaccharides
  47. Raffinose
    stachyose
    oligosaccharides
  48. What is the shortest oligosaccharide?
    3 Carbons
  49. What is raffinose made of?
    Galact + Glucose + Fructose
  50. Starch
    Glycogen
    Cellulose
    Common Polysaccharides
  51. What is glycogen used for?
    muscles
  52. How are starch, glycogen and cellulose different structurally?
    • If starch is added to H2O it forms a helox ball
    • Glycogen has branches
    • and cellulose's structure has every other glucose is upside down
  53. What is cellulose made of?
    b-glucose
  54. What does cellulose make when weaved together?
    Fibrils
  55. What uses fibrils and why?
    • plants because of thier cell wall
    • also why humans cannot digest it and produce gas~broccoli
  56. Why does a potateo have more calories then lettuce?
    Because lettuce has more cellulose making it harder for humans to break down hence getting less calories from it
  57. Chemical make up of cellulose and starch
    C6H12O6
  58. What are lipids 3 functions for plants?
    • Water-proofing
    • membranes
    • stored energy
  59. What are lipids made of?
    Carb/Hydro/Oxygen
  60. Why doesn't lipids like H2O?
    Less O's in the make up
  61. Is lipids a polymer?
    no, but it is a macromer
  62. 4 Types of lipids
    • Nuetral
    • Phospholipids
    • Sterol
    • Waxes
  63. Whats a neutral lipid?
    glycerol + 3 fatty acids
  64. Saturated vs. Unsaturated
    • Saturated:
    • filled w/hydrogen
    • solid @ room temp
    • stackable
    • High Density

    • Unsaturated:
    • double bonds
    • liquid @ room temp
    • Low Density
  65. 2 types of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Mono unsaturated (only 1 double bond)
    • Poly unsaturated (more than 1 double bond)
  66. What are phospholipids used for?
    membranes
  67. What makes up a phospholipid?
    glycerol + 2 fatty acids
  68. What are Sterols used for?
    • Stabilizers
    • Animals Hormone
  69. Name of plant sterol
    Sitosterol
  70. Name of fungi sterol
    Ergosterol
  71. Name of human and animal sterol
    Cholesterol
  72. What are the 3 types of sterol?
    • Sitosterol
    • Ergosterol
    • Cholesterol
  73. What is it called when seeds are collected from desireable appearing individuals in a population, and the next generation is sown from the stock of mixed seed
    Mass Selection
  74. What are Trichomes and what is thier purpose?
    Outgrowth from the epidermis of plants, as a hair. Used to repel insects, reflect sun and retain H2O
  75. What is petiole?
    The stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem
  76. Micronutrients
    B, Cu, Fe, Cl, Mn, Mo, Zn
  77. Most abundant organic polymer molecule
    Cellulose-bc of wood
  78. Difference between populations and communites:
    Populations are specific species and communities is all the species coexisting together
  79. Monomer of nucleic acid
    Nucleotides

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