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the study of the internal and external structures and their relationships to one another.
the functions of the body's structural machinery, that is, how all the body parts work and carry out life sustaining activities.
Gross anatomy or Macroscopic anatomy
- cutting open; look at or view
- ex. structures of a dissected heart
- Cannot be seen without magnification
- ex. cellular structure of heart wall
simplest form is the observation of surface structure.
Feeling or touching parts of the body.
Listening or using a stethascope
Using auscultation and palpation at the same time
- Origin of cellular theory
- Invented microscope
- Discovered cells
Levels of Organization: six levels of hierarchy
- Chemical level- Atoms (smallest stable unit of matter)
- Cellular level- Smallest living units in the body
- Tissue level- Group of cells working together
- Organ level- Two or more tissues working together
- Organ system- Multiple organs interacting
- Organism- Whole human (Highest level)
Characteristics of life
- Metabolism and excretion- The elimination of chemical waste products generated by the organisms.
- Responsiveness-Indicates that the organism recognizes changes in its internal or external environment; required for adaptability
- Movement- Distributes material throughout large organisms
- Growth and Reproduction- Indicates that the organism is successful
- Homeo-unchanging Stasis-standing
- The ability to maintain stable internal conditions versus outside changes. It is a dynamic state of equilibrium in which the internal conditions vary, although within narrow limits. It is absolutely vital, a failure to maintain homeastases may lead to illness or even death.