Card Set Information
What is the body’s second greatest body system?
What does endo- crine mean?
endo = within, crene=to
What does the endocrine system release?
Which is faster, nervous or endocrine system?
Which system has ducts?
Which system is ductless?
What types of substance does the exocrine system secrete?
sweat oil and saliva
What system secretes hormones?
What two functions does the hypothalamus have?
neural and hormonal release
Which two organs are both endocrine and exocrine?
pancreas and gonads
What system influences metabolic activity by hormones?
What are chemical messengers released in the blood?
What is hormonal reception like?
lag, but prolonged reception
What does the exocrine system secrete?
What are the endocrine glands?
pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal
What are the endocrine organs?
hypothalamus, pancreas, gonads, thymus
What do hormones do?
regulate metabolic activity of other cells
What five things does target cell activity include?
plasma permeability, protein synthesis, enzyme systems, secretory activities,mitosis
Where does protein synthesis occur?
What are three types of hormones?
amino acid based, steroids, and eicosanoids
What type of hormones are most hormones?
amino acid based
What are steroids?
What hormones belong to the steroid type?
gonad and adrenocortico
What do hormones alter?
What type of activity do hormones stimulate?
Why are amino acid based hormones more challenging to communicate with the cell?
proteins and peptides can’t penetrate plasma membrane
What carries the signal from the cell membrane into the cell with amino acidbased hormones?
a second messenger
What is an example of a second messenger?
What happens after an amino acid based hormone reaches the cell membrane?
a receptor is activated
What happens after receptor in the cell membrane is activated by amino acid based hormone?
protein slides along membrane to enzyme
What happens after an enzyme is activated by protein receptor (previously activatedamino acid based hormone)?
conversion of message from ATP to cAMP
What does cAMP do?
activates protein kinases, triggers response in cell
Is a second messenger needed for steroid hormones?
How does a steroid hormone activate a cell?
diffuses in cell, attaches to a receptor, travels to DNA in nucleus, attachesto DNA, transcription to mRNA, translation in ribsome to make protein
What does target cell specifity prevent?
hormones activating cells that don’t need to be activated
What feedback system are most hormones?
What is one hormone that uses positive feedback?
What do humeral stimuli apply to?
changes in blood levels
What does the nerve do in neural stimuli?
stimulates hormonal release
What happens in hormonal stimuli?
hormone reacted to hormone
What is an example of hormonal stimuli?
How does the hypothalamus communicated with the anterior pituitary?
hypophyseal portal system
What happens in neural stimuli?
nerve stimulates hormonal release
nerve sends impulse to gland
gland secretes hormone
What hormones are humeral stimulated?
What hormones are neural stimulated?
norepinephrine and epinephrine
What is the anterior lobe of the pituitary made of?
What is the target of the growth hormone (GH)?
bones and muscles
What hormone promotes growth and increases metabolism?
What happens in children if there is hypersecretion of GH?
What is hypersecretion of GH in adults?
What is hyposecretion of GH?
What is the target of TSH?
What hormone stimulates hormonal development of the thyroid?
What does ACTH target?
the adrenal cortex
What hormone stimulates the release of corticosteroids?
What does FSH target?
Ovaries and testes
What hormone stimulates the production of gametes?
What are gametes?
sex cells, sperm and eggs
What does LH target?
ovaries and testes
What hormone stimulates the production of sex hormones?
What is the difference between FSH and LH?
FSH promotes stimulation of sex cells being released, LH stimulates stimulation of sex hormones being released
What does PRL target?
breast tissue and uterine lining
What hormone stimulates milk production?
What is the difference between Oxytocin and Prolactin?
PRL stimulates production of milk, Oxytocin stimulates release of milk
What targets the uterus and breast tissue?
Oxytocin and PRL
What hormone targets kidneys to reabsorb water?
What disease occurs when there is hyposecretion of ADH?