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  1. What is the body’s second greatest body system?
    Endocrine system
  2. What does endo- crine mean?
    endo = within, crene=to
  3. What does the endocrine system release?
  4. Which is faster, nervous or endocrine system?
    nervous system
  5. Which system has ducts?
    exocrine system
  6. Which system is ductless?
  7. What types of substance does the exocrine system secrete?
    sweat oil and saliva
  8. What system secretes hormones?
  9. What two functions does the hypothalamus have?
    neural and hormonal release
  10. Which two organs are both endocrine and exocrine?
    pancreas and gonads
  11. What system influences metabolic activity by hormones?
  12. What are chemical messengers released in the blood?
  13. What is hormonal reception like?
    lag, but prolonged reception
  14. What does the exocrine system secrete?
  15. What are the endocrine glands?
    pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal
  16. What are the endocrine organs?
    hypothalamus, pancreas, gonads, thymus
  17. What do hormones do?
    regulate metabolic activity of other cells
  18. What five things does target cell activity include?
    plasma permeability, protein synthesis, enzyme systems, secretory activities,mitosis
  19. Where does protein synthesis occur?
    in ribosomes
  20. What are three types of hormones?
    amino acid based, steroids, and eicosanoids
  21. What type of hormones are most hormones?
    amino acid based
  22. What are steroids?
  23. What hormones belong to the steroid type?
    gonad and adrenocortico
  24. What do hormones alter?
    metabolic activity
  25. What type of activity do hormones stimulate?
  26. Why are amino acid based hormones more challenging to communicate with the cell?
    proteins and peptides can’t penetrate plasma membrane
  27. What carries the signal from the cell membrane into the cell with amino acidbased hormones?
    a second messenger
  28. What is an example of a second messenger?
  29. What happens after an amino acid based hormone reaches the cell membrane?
    a receptor is activated
  30. What happens after receptor in the cell membrane is activated by amino acid based hormone?
    protein slides along membrane to enzyme
  31. What happens after an enzyme is activated by protein receptor (previously activatedamino acid based hormone)?
    conversion of message from ATP to cAMP
  32. What does cAMP do?
    activates protein kinases, triggers response in cell
  33. Is a second messenger needed for steroid hormones?
  34. How does a steroid hormone activate a cell?
    diffuses in cell, attaches to a receptor, travels to DNA in nucleus, attachesto DNA, transcription to mRNA, translation in ribsome to make protein
  35. What does target cell specifity prevent?
    hormones activating cells that don’t need to be activated
  36. What feedback system are most hormones?
    negative feedback
  37. What is one hormone that uses positive feedback?
  38. What do humeral stimuli apply to?
    changes in blood levels
  39. What does the nerve do in neural stimuli?
    stimulates hormonal release
  40. What happens in hormonal stimuli?
    hormone reacted to hormone
  41. What is an example of hormonal stimuli?
    tropic hormones
  42. How does the hypothalamus communicated with the anterior pituitary?
    hypophyseal portal system
  43. What happens in neural stimuli?
    • nerve stimulates hormonal release
    • nerve sends impulse to gland
    • gland secretes hormone
  44. What hormones are humeral stimulated?
    parathyroid hormone
  45. What hormones are neural stimulated?
    norepinephrine and epinephrine
  46. What is the anterior lobe of the pituitary made of?
    glandular tissue
  47. What is the target of the growth hormone (GH)?
    bones and muscles
  48. What hormone promotes growth and increases metabolism?
    growth hormone
  49. What happens in children if there is hypersecretion of GH?
  50. What is hypersecretion of GH in adults?
  51. What is hyposecretion of GH?
  52. What is the target of TSH?
    thyroid gland
  53. What hormone stimulates hormonal development of the thyroid?
  54. What does ACTH target?
    the adrenal cortex
  55. What hormone stimulates the release of corticosteroids?
  56. What does FSH target?
    Ovaries and testes
  57. What hormone stimulates the production of gametes?
  58. What are gametes?
    sex cells, sperm and eggs
  59. What does LH target?
    ovaries and testes
  60. What hormone stimulates the production of sex hormones?
  61. What is the difference between FSH and LH?
    FSH promotes stimulation of sex cells being released, LH stimulates stimulation of sex hormones being released
  62. What does PRL target?
    breast tissue and uterine lining
  63. What hormone stimulates milk production?
  64. What is the difference between Oxytocin and Prolactin?
    PRL stimulates production of milk, Oxytocin stimulates release of milk
  65. What targets the uterus and breast tissue?
    Oxytocin and PRL
  66. What hormone targets kidneys to reabsorb water?
  67. What disease occurs when there is hyposecretion of ADH?
    diabetes insipidus
Card Set
endocrine lecture
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