CJUS Key Terms

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Anonymous
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130883
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CJUS Key Terms
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2012-01-26 21:11:51
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criminal justice terms terminology
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Chapters 1-4
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  1. criminal justice
    the system of law enforcement ajudication, and correction that is directly involved in the apprehension, prosecution, and control of those charged with a crime
  2. criminal justice process
    the decision making points, from the inti. investigation or arrest to the eventual release and reentry into society OR the various sequential criminal justice stages through which the offender passes
  3. Chicago crime commission
    oldest and most respected citizens crime commission in US
  4. ABF
    American Bar Foundation--to provide in depth analysis of of criminal justice agencies
  5. LEAA
    Law Enforcement Assistance Admin--founded by Safe Streets Act, provided technical assistance and funding to local and state justice agencies
  6. in-presence requirement
    the condition that in order to make an arrest in a misdemeanor, the arresting officer must have personally witnessed the crime being committed
  7. nolle prosequi
    when a prosecutor decided to drop a case after a complaint has been formally made
  8. grand jury
    responsible for invetigating alleged crimes examining evidence, and issuing endictments
  9. true bill of endictment
    a written statement charging a defendant with a crime
  10. courtroom work group
    used to indicate that all parties in the adversary process work together cooperatively to settle cases with the least amount of conflict and effort
  11. crime control perspective
    a CJ model that emphasizes the control of dangerous offendres and the protection of society
  12. rehabilitation perspective
    the view that the primary purpose of cjus is helping to care for people that cannot manage themselves (crime is an expression of anger created by social inequality in this case)
  13. due process perspective
    a safeguard against unfair state procedures in jud. proceedings, protecting the defendants basic rights and privacy
  14. nonintervention perspective
    emphasizes least intrusive treatment possible (decarceration, diversion, "less is better")
  15. decriminalization
    reducing the penalty for a criminal act without legalizing it
  16. legalization
    removal of all criminal penalties from a previously outlawed act
  17. victimless crime
    crimes harmful to social fabric (prostitution, drugs, gambling)
  18. deinstitutionalization
    removing as many offenders as possbile from secure confinement to treat them in the community
  19. pretrial diversion
    a program that provides nonpunitive community based alternatives to jail or prison
  20. widening the net of justice
    the view that programs designed to divert offenders from the justice system actually enmesh them further in the process by substituting intrusive treatment programs for less intrusive punishment oriented outcomes
  21. equal justice perspective
    view that all people should be treated equally before the law
  22. truth in sentencing laws
    requires that offenders serve at least 85% of original sentence
  23. restorative justice perspective
    a view that advocates peaceful solutions and mediation rather than coercive punishments
  24. consensus view
    crimes that are essentially harmful to a majority of citizens and are prohibited by existing criminal law
  25. conflict view
    crime is the outcome of class struggle between the rich and poor
  26. interactionist view
    criminal law is structured to reflect preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in particular legal jurisdictions
  27. UCR
    Uniform Crime Report--FBI compiled annual data report of type 1 and 2 crimes (serious offenses)
  28. crime
    a violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted by a criminal legal code
  29. National Crime Victimization Survey
    NCVS-ongoing victimization study by Justice Department and US census bureau that surveys crime victims
  30. self report survey
    designed to measure past and current criminal activities that relies on confidentialy and anonymity
  31. chronic offender
    a delinquent offender who is arrested five or more times before 18 and is likely to be an adult criminal
  32. choice theory
    the idea that people will engage in delinquent and criminal behavior after weighing the pros and cons and that crime commission is a rational choice
  33. positive stage
    people embrace rational scientific explanations for observed phenomena
  34. biosocial theory
    a function of the interaction of biochemical, neurological, and genetic factors with environmental stimuli
  35. psychoanalytic view
    criminals are driven by unconcious thought patterns developed in early childhood
  36. bipolar disorder
    a condition marked by mood swings
  37. attachment theory
    the idea that people who had close, caring bonds with a caregiver while growing up are more likely to develop healthy relationships in adulthood
  38. behavioral theory
    behavioral patterns are modeled and learned in interactions with others
  39. psychopathic/antisocial/sociopathic personality
    chronically antisocial, chronicall in trouble individuals who do not learn from either experience or punishment
  40. social structure theory
    a person's position in the social structure controls his or her behavior
  41. collective efficacy
    the ability of neighborhood residents to act cooperatively to maintain social control within communities
  42. street efficacy
    using one's wits to avoid violent confrontations
  43. subculture
    a substratum of society that maintains a unique set of values and beliefs
  44. cultural transmission
    the passing of cultural values from one generation to the next
  45. social process theory
    an individual's behavior is shaped by interactions with key social institutions
  46. parental efficacy
    the ability of parents to provide support and discipline in a noncoercive manner
  47. conflict theory
    human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and those who maintain social power use it to further their own interests
  48. developmental theory
    social interactions that are developed over the life course shape behavior
  49. substantive criminal law
    a body of specific rules that declare what conduct is criminal and prescribe the punishment to be imposed for such conduct
  50. criminal procedure
    the rules and laws that define the operation of the criminal proceedings
  51. civil law
    all law that is not criminal, including the law of torts, and contract, property, maritime, and commercial law
  52. tort
    a personal injurt or wrong for which an action for damages may be brought
  53. lex talionis
    "law as retaliation"--the belief that the purpose of the law is to provide retaliation for an offended party, and that the punishment should fit the crime
  54. stare decisis
    to stand by decided cases. the legal principle by which the decision of a previous case becomes the standard for subsequent similar cases
  55. common law
    early English law
  56. mala in se
    refers to acts that society considers inherently evil
  57. mala prohibitum
    crimes created by legislative bodies that reflect prevailing moral beliefs in practices
  58. felony
    a serious offense that carries the penalty of incarceration in a state prison for a year or more usually
  59. misdemeanor
    a minor crime usually punished by less than one year's imprisonment in a local institution
  60. actus reus
    an illegal act
  61. mens rea
    guilty mind, the mental element of a crime or the intent to commit one
  62. strict liability crime
    illegal act whose elements do not contain the need for intent. usually an act that endangers the public welfare, like dumping
  63. entrapment
    a criminal dfense that maintains the police originated the criminal idea or initiated the criminal action
  64. obitiatry
    helping people take their own lives
  65. neurolegal defense
    a criminal defense that relies on showing that neurological activity or lack of it caused a person to commit a crime
  66. Bill of Rights
    the first ten ammendments to the constitution
  67. exclusionary rule
    evidence seized in violation of the fourth ammendment cannot be used in a court of law
  68. tithing
    a group of ten families in medieval England who collectively dealt with minor disturbances
  69. hue and cry
    a call for assistance in medieval England
  70. hundred
    in medieval England, a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses
  71. constable
    an appointed official who administered and supervised the legal affairs of a small community
  72. shire reeve
    the senior law enforcement figure in a county in med. England
  73. sheriff
    the chief law enforcement officer in a county
  74. watch system
    in med England, a group of men organized in churches to guard against breaches of the peace
  75. justice of the peace
    created in med england to help the shire reeve in controlling the county
  76. vigilantes
    groups of citizens who tracked down wanted criminals in teh old west
  77. US Marshals Service
    fed agency whose jurisdiction includes protecting federal offcials, transporting criminal defendants, and tracking down fugitives
  78. DHS
    Department of Homeland Security--fed agency repsonsible for preventing terrorist attacks and reducing vulterability
  79. CBP
    Customs and Border Protection--fed agency responsible for the control and protection of America's borders and ports of entry, first priority is keeping terrorists out
  80. secret service
    federal agency responsible for executive protection and for investigation of counterfeiting and various forms of fin. fraud
  81. augmented reality technology
    wearable components that supply computer-generated virtual information
  82. ABIS
    Automated Biometric Identification System--facial recognition system to sift through millions of images to find duplicates before issuing an id or clearing a passport

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